Bullenbeisser dog


Bullenbeisser-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Bullenbeisser (also known as the German Bulldog) was a breed of dog known for its strength and agility. The breed was closely related to the Bärenbeisser (some believe that the two breeds were the same; the names mean "bull-biter" and "bear-biter," respectively), and the Boxer. It was, in all its aspects, similar to the present Alano Español (Spanish Bulldog) and very alike to the Dogo Argentino, not only in aspect, but also in usage. There were two regional varieties, the Brabanter Bullenbeisser and the Danziger Bullenbeisser. The breed is now extinct.

Extinction

The Bullenbeisser became extinct by crossbreeding rather than by a decadence of the breed, as happened with the Old Time Bulldog, for instance. The size of the Bull Biters varied from about 40 to 70 cm by 1850; the smaller lived from what today is Netherlands and Belgium, and the bigger, in Germany. In the late 1870s, German breeders Roberth, Konig, and Hopner used the dog to create a new breed, today called the Boxer. Some 30 Bullenbeissers were already crossed by the Boxer Kennel Club of Germany at 1900 in with Bulldogs brought from the British Isles. The blood composition was 50/50 at that time, however, the German owners started crossing their dogs with all kinds of Bulldogs and Boxers, which produced an undistinguishable breed after World War II. One reason why such quantity of German blood was used to create the Boxer dog was the wish to eliminate the excessive white colour of the breed, and the necessity of producing thousands of dogs for one of the most popular breeds in the world.

Bulldog


Bulldog-pets-dogs-dog breeds

A Bulldog is a medium-sized breed of dog commonly referred to as the English Bulldog or British Bulldog. It is a muscular, hefty dog with a wrinkled face and a distinctive pushed-in nose. The American Kennel Club (AKC), The Kennel Club (UK), and the United Kennel Club (UKC) oversee breeding records. The Bulldog Club of America  (BCA) maintains the standard of excellence for the guidance of breeders, owners and judges in the United States. Bulldogs were the fourth most popular purebred in the US in 2016 according to the American Kennel Club.

Bulldogs have a longstanding association with British culture, as the BBC wrote: "to many the Bulldog is a national icon, symbolising pluck and determination." During World War II, Bulldogs were often likened to Prime Minister Winston Churchill and his defiance of Nazi Germany. When the English immigrated to America, their Bulldog came with them. A few dedicated bulldog fanciers formed the Bulldog Club of America in 1890 and it was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York on November 29, 1904.

Description

Appearance

Bulldogs have characteristically wide heads and shoulders along with a pronounced mandibular prognathism. There are generally thick folds of skin on the brow; round, black, wide-set eyes; a short muzzle with characteristic folds called a rope or nose roll above the nose; hanging skin under the neck; drooping lips and pointed teeth, and an underbite with an upturned jaw. The coat is short, flat, and sleek, with colours of red, fawn, white, brindle, and piebald.

In the United Kingdom, the breed standards are 55 lb (25 kg) for a male and 50 lb (23 kg) for a female. In the United States, a typical mature male weighs 50 lb (23 kg), while mature females weigh about 40 lb (18 kg). The Bulldog Club of America recommends the average weight of a bulldog to be 40–50 lb (18–23 kg).

Bulldogs are one of the few breeds whose tail is naturally short and either straight or screwed and thus is not cut or docked as with some other breeds. A straight tail is a more desirable tail according to the breed standard set forth by the BCA if it is facing downward, not upwards.

Temperament

According to the American Kennel Club (AKC), a Bulldog's disposition should be "equable and kind, resolute, and courageous (not vicious or aggressive), and demeanor should be pacific and dignified. These attributes should be countenanced by the expression and behavior".

Breeders have worked to reduce/remove aggression from these dogs. Most have a friendly, patient, but stubborn nature. Bulldogs are recognized as excellent family pets because of their tendency to form strong bonds with children.

Generally, Bulldogs are known for getting along well with children, other dogs, and other pets.

Bulldogs have been rated one of the least intelligent breeds; they were ranked 78th out of 80 by obedience experts in Working/Obedience Intelligence.

Health

A 2004 UK survey of 180 Bulldog deaths puts the median age at death at 6 years 3 months. The leading cause of death of Bulldogs in the survey was cardiac related (20%), cancer (18%), and old age (9%). Those that died of old age had an average lifespan of 10 to 11 years. A 2013 UK vet clinic survey of 26 Bulldogs puts the median lifespan at 8.4 years with an interquartile range of 3.2–11.3 years. The UK Bulldog Breed Council website lists the average life span of the breed as 8–10 years.

Statistics from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals indicate that of the 467 Bulldogs tested between 1979 and 2009 (30 years), 73.9% were affected by hip dysplasia, the highest amongst all breeds. Similarly, the breed has the worst score in the British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club Hip Dysplasia scoring scheme, although only 22 Bulldogs were tested in the scheme. Patellar luxation affects 6.2% of Bulldogs.

Some individuals of this breed are prone to interdigital cysts—cysts that form between the toes. These cause the dog some discomfort, but are treatable either by vet or an experienced owner. They may also suffer from respiratory problems. Other problems can include cherry eye, a protrusion of the inner eyelid (which can be corrected by a veterinarian), allergies, and hip issues in older Bulldogs.

Over 80% of Bulldog litters are delivered by Caesarean section because their characteristically large heads can become lodged in the mother's birth canal. The folds, or "rope", on a Bulldog's face should be cleaned daily to avoid infections caused by moisture accumulation. Some Bulldogs' naturally curling tails can be so tight to the body as to require regular cleaning and ointment. Due to the high volume of skin folds on the Bulldog's body, they have high prevalence of skin-fold dermatitis.

Like all dogs, Bulldogs require daily exercise. If not properly exercised it is possible for a Bulldog to become overweight, which could lead to heart and lung problems, as well as stress on the joints.
Bulldogs have very small nasal cavities and thus have great difficulty keeping their bodies cool. Bulldogs are very sensitive to heat. Extra caution should be practiced in warmer climates and during summer months. Bulldogs must be given plenty of shade and water, and must be kept out of standing heat. Air conditioning and good ventilation are required to keep them healthy and safe. Bulldogs actually do most of their sweating through the pads on their feet and accordingly enjoy cool floors. Like all brachycephalic, or "short faced", breeds, Bulldogs can easily become overheated and even die from hyperthermia. Bulldog owners can keep these issues under control by staying aware and protecting their Bulldog(s) from these unsafe conditions. They can be heavy breathers, and they tend to be loud snorers. In 2014 the Dutch Kennel Club implemented some breeding rules to improve the health of the Bulldog. Among these is a fitness test where the dog has to walk 1 km (0.62 miles) in 12 minutes. Its temperature and heart rate has to recover after 15 minutes.

In January 2009, after the BBC documentary Pedigree Dogs Exposed, The Kennel Club introduced revised breed standards for the British Bulldog, along with 209 other breeds, to address health concerns. Opposed by the British Bulldog Breed Council, it was speculated by the press that the changes would lead to a smaller head, fewer skin folds, a longer muzzle, and a taller thinner posture, in order to combat problems with respiration and breeding due to head size and width of shoulders.

Miniature Bull Terrier


Miniature Bull Terrier-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Bull Terrier (Miniature) is a breed with origins in the extinct English White Terrier, the Dalmatian and the Bulldog. The first existence is documented 1872 in The Dogs of British Island.

Description

Appearance

Miniature Bull Terriers have short, fine, and glossy coats that are very close to the skin, like the Bull Terriers. They are accepted in the ring to be white, white with another colour, or fully coloured. However, like the Standards, any blue or liver coloured coats are undesirable. These dogs require minimal grooming.

In the early 1900s, the difference between the breeds was determined by the dog's weight. However, this led to Miniature Bull Terriers becoming so small and fine that they looked more like a Chihuahua than a Bull Terrier. So, in the 1970s, the weight limit was replaced with a height limit of under fourteen inches. They are usually no smaller than ten inches. According to the AKC, miniature bull terriers' weight must be proportionate to its height. However, they tend to range anywhere from 20–35 lbs.

The Miniature Bull Terriers have a very bold build. They have very muscular shoulders and a full body. Like the Bull Terrier, they have a head described as "egg-shaped." It is flat on top with a Roman nose. The eyes are triangular and closely set. The ears are carried erect and are not cropped or otherwise altered.The tail is carried horizontally rather than vertically.

Temperament

Like the Bull Terriers, Minis are loving and, like many terrier breeds, they can be stubborn at times; but despite this they make great dogs for people with limited space.

Miniature Bull Terriers are known to be stubborn and courageous. Despite their dimuitive stature, they will readily challenge larger dogs. However, as with any dog, owners can reduce the likelihood of confrontations by providing appropriate training. They are very energetic and playful and love people, but care must be taken as they are variable around other dogs.

Miniature Bull Terriers require little grooming. A quick brushing once a day or a few times a week is sufficient. Sunscreen must be used on any sparse white sections of fur around the face, ears, hindquarters or stomach when outdoors (especially in the summer between the hours of 10am and 2pm) to avoid sunburn and cancer.

Training

Miniatures are independent and stubborn and do require a lot of training, particularly early on. They must be heavily socialized at a young age and trained to obey early in their lives. They also are very energetic and seem to be able to play endlessly as puppies. However, as they grow older, they become less energetic. They must be carefully exercised and dieted to avoid obesity.


Health

Miniature Bull Terriers are generally quite healthy, but there are hearing, eye, skin, kidney, heart and knee problems in some dogs. Deafness occurs in both coloured and white Bull Terrier (Miniature). Puppies can be born unilaterally deaf (deaf in one ear) or bilaterally deaf (deaf in both ears). Deaf dogs should not be bred due to deafness being hereditary.[BEAP (or BAER) testing is done on puppies prior to sale to discover which puppies have hearing problems.

Bull Terrier (Miniature) are also susceptible to having luxating patellas. This is a knee problem common in small dogs. It can be treated by surgery.

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and Bull Terrier hereditary nephritis (BTHN) are autosomal dominant diseases. PKD is diagnosed by Ultrasonic scan by a specialist veterinarian. BTHN is diagnosed by a UPC test. Dogs with a score of .3 or below are considered clear of the disease. Clearing breeding stock prior to use ensures that progeny are not affected with the disease.

Miniature Bull Terriers are also susceptible to eye problems such as primary lens luxation. PLL is a late onset disease which typically affects dogs between the ages of mid 2 and 7. Younger and older cases are known. During September 2009 a definitive DNA test was released by the Animal Health Trust. This test gives three results: Clear, Carrier, or Affected.

Aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve dysplasia are heart diseases. Diagnosis is made by colour doppler echocardiography scanning by a specialist veterinarian.

Disorders of the skin of a Miniature Bull Terrier can occur. Pyotraumatic dermatitis (hot spots), allergic reactions, and hives can be problematic. UK and US breed surveys shows an average lifespan of 10-14 years.

Bull Terrier


Bull Terrier-dogs-pets-dog breeds

The Bull Terrier is a breed of dog in the terrier family. There is also a miniature version of this breed which is officially known as the Miniature Bull Terrier.

Appearance

The Bull Terrier's most recognizable feature is its head, described as 'egg-shaped' when viewed from the front; the top of the skull is almost flat. The profile curves gently downwards from the top of the skull to the tip of the nose, which is black and bent downwards at the tip, with well developed nostrils. The under-jaw is deep and strong. The unique triangular eyes are small, dark, and deep-set. Bull Terriers are the only dogs that have triangular eyes. The body is full and round, with strong, muscular shoulders. The tail is carried horizontally. They are either white, red, fawn, black, brindle, or a combination of these.

Temperament

Bull Terriers can be both independent and stubborn and for this reason are not considered suitable for an inexperienced dog owner. A Bull Terrier has an even temperament and is amenable to discipline. Although obstinate, they are particularly good with people. Early socialisation will ensure that the dog will get along with other dogs and animals. Their personality is described as courageous, full of spirit, with a fun-loving attitude, a children-loving dog and a perfect family member. A 2008 study in Germany showed that Bull Terriers have no significant temperament difference from Golden retrievers in overall temperament researches.

Health

All puppies should be checked for deafness, which occurs in 20.4% of pure white Bull Terriers and 1.3% of colored Bull Terriers and is difficult to notice, especially in a relatively young puppy. Many Bull Terriers have a tendency to develop skin allergies. Insect bites, such as those from fleas, and sometimes mosquitoes and mites, can produce a generalised allergic response of hives, rash, and itching. This problem can be stopped by keeping the dog free of contact from these insects, but this is definitely a consideration in climates or circumstances where exposure to these insects is inevitable. A UK breed survey puts their median lifespan at 10 years and their mean at 9 years (1 s.f., RSE = 13.87% 2 d. p.), with a good number of dogs living to 10–15 years.


Bull and Terrier

Bull and Terrier-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Bull and Terrier is an extinct type of dog that was the progenitor of the American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, English Bull Terrier and the Staffordshire Bull Terrier.

History

The Bull and Terrier is a cross between the Old English Bulldog and a variety of Old English Terriers.

There were several varieties of this combination between bulldog and terrier, depending on the location(town or country) and the dogs chosen for the crossing. In Ireland, they used the old Irish bulldog with different terriers and some insertion of hunting sighthound/terrier crosses.[7][8] In England, there were several varieties, among which three became known and survived until the 1930s. These were the Walsall type, that had some influence from Whippet; the Darlaston type, that had the major influence of terrier blood; and the Cradley Heath type, that had more Bulldog blood. Phil Drabble reported that among these three types of bull and terrier, the type of Cradley Heath was recognized as a separate breed under name of Staffordshire Bull Terrier in 1935, and the other types gradually disappeared because they did not meet the imposed standard. But decades earlier, in the 19th century, at least the Walsall type was carried by immigrants to the United States, where it served as an important component for the genetic basis of the American Pit Bull Terrier breed, through specimens such as the dog Lloyd's Pilot and the Colby bloodline, strongly combined with Irish strains.

The anatomy of the Bull and Terrier is the result of selective breeding for the purpose of hunting, dog fighting and baiting.

Hunting

Most terriers, of the past and present, carried or carry a quarter to an eighth Old English Bulldog blood in them in order, allegedly, to give courage to bear the bites of the prey they are meant to attack. Terriers who were not developed from crosses between the Old English Bulldog and earth-working dogs were of inferior quality and were valued far less.
There are earth-working dogs who by default and definition are called terriers because they have the ability to go to ground; however, the best earth-working and hunting terriers are the progeny of bulldogs bred to earth-working dogs (terriers), also known as the 'Bull-Terrier' or 'half-bred' dog.
John Henry Walsh wrote in 'The dog, in health and disease, by Stonehenge' (1859):

The terrier as used for hunting is a strong useful little dog, with great endurance and courage, and with nearly as good a nose as the Beagle or Harrier. From his superior courage when crossed with the Bulldog, as most vermin-terriers are, he has generally been kept for killing vermin whose bite would deter the Spaniel or the Beagle, but would only render the terrier more determined in his pursuit of them.

Walsh also wrote of the Fox Terrier:

The field fox-terrier, used for bolting the fox when gone to ground, was of this breed (bull and terrier).

Not only is the Fox Terrier the progeny of the Bull and Terrier, but so is the Airedale Terrier, rat-working terriers, working black and tan terriers, and most all other vermin-hunting terriers.

James Rodwell described in his book titled The rat: its history and destructive nature, that the great object, among the various breeders of Bull and Terrier dogs for hunting vermin and rats, was to have them as nearly thorough-bred bull as possible, but at the same time preserving all the outward appearances of the terrier as to size, shape, and colour.

Dog fighting

The Old English Bulldog was bred for bull-baiting. Its life depended on "Go Low, Pin and Hold". Such a breed was unsuitable for dog fighting in the pit. Once an Old English Bulldog got a good grip, there would be little left for the spectators to see, except for two dogs gripping each other, closing their jaws tighter and tighter.

Required were quick attacks, new grips, and tricks, which made up the drama of a dog fight that appealed to spectators, gamblers, and dog owners. The introduction of English Terrier blood provided longer legs, fiery temperament, and speed, which provided entertaining fights.

The crossing of bulldog and terrier produced a dog that no longer belonged to either foundation breed. The new breed was called the Bull and Terrier. With attributes such as ferociousness, aggressiveness, and intelligence, there were few fighting tasks it could not perform better than other breeds of those times.

In 1835, with the banning of baiting the breed was placed in jeopardy of extinction; however, while bull-baiting and bear-baiting laws were enforced, dog fighting flourished, so the Bull and Terrier lived on. Around 1860, the Bull and Terrier breed split into two branches, the pure white Bull Terrier and the coloured forms that lived on for another seventy years in the dog pit until they finally were recognized as a legitimate dog breed called the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Around the same time, many lower class Irish and Englishmen were emigrating to America with their proto-Staffordshire Bull Terriers. Over time, the descendants of these dogs became taller and heavier. Their masters opted for a dog that was both an aggressive warrior in the gambling dens of the cities and saloons but also was a working dog, its terrier and bulldog blood from Ireland and the UK proving to be very useful in farm work and in hunting. The breed was officially recognized as the American Pit Bull Terrier, in 1898 and later its close kin the American Staffordshire Terrier in 1936.


Famous Bull and Terriers

Billy

A celebrated Bull and Terrier named "Billy", weighing approximately 26 pounds, set a world record for rat-baiting on April 22, 1823 by killing a hundred rats in five-and-a-half minutes.

Dustman

In 1812, Sporting Magazine described "Dustman" as a very famous and talented fighting dog, which represented the optimal Bull and Terrier type.

Trusty


According to accounts in the Sporting Magazine from the year 1804, a Bull and Terrier named "Trusty" was just as famous throughout England as the Emperor Napoleon. Trusty went undefeated in one hundred and four dog fights.

Bucovina Shepherd Dog

Bucovina Shepherd Dog-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Bucovina Shepherd (Câine Ciobănesc de Bucovina) is one of the largest and most powerful, rustic livestock guardian dogs, with strong watch dog qualities, which was developed over many centuries by shepherds in the Carpathian Mountains.

There are three types of Romanian shepherd dogs: the Mioritic (old name Barac), the Carpatin (old name Zăvod) and the Bucovina Shepherd. In the FCI, this particular breed is known as the Southeastern European Shepherd.

Temperament

The Bucovina Shepherd dog was bred to protect sheep flocks and cattle herds, and proves courageous and very combative when potential predators are afoot. It is an excellent watchdog, having a very deep, powerful bark and being very alert when strangers enter its territory. During the night, it patrols around the property or herds. An adult Bucovina Sheepdog needs plenty of space to run around with a large back yard.

This breed is balanced, calm, very devoted, and loves children. It strongly mistrusts strangers.

Appearance

Large sized dog; commanding, haughty and proud. The breed has an obvious sexual dimorphism.

Coat

Head and the front part of the legs are covered with short hair. On the body, hair is abundant, long (6-9 cm), flat, straight and rough. Undercoat is shorter, very dense and supple, and of a lighter colour. At the neck region, hair is much longer forming a mane; on the backside of the forequarters, the hair forms fringes; on the backside of hindquarters, the hair is longer and forms culottes. The tail is bushy.

Color

Main colour of coat is a clear white or white-beige with distinct patches of grey, black or black with red-fawn reflections. Black or grey ticks can appear on the legs. Brindle aspect of patches to be rejected.

Size

The male Bucovina Shepherd is 68–78 centimetres (27–31 in) tall. The females are close in size, at 64–72 centimetres (25–28 in).

Conformation

The Bucovina Shepherd's head is massive, slightly elevated with respect to the back line. The skull is moderately wide. The stop is slightly marked. The nose is black well developed and wide. The muzzle has the shape of a truncated cone, of the same length as the skull, well developed. It becomes progressively narrow towards the extremity but it is never pointed.

The lips are thick, well applied, with strong pigmentation. This breed should have strong jaws, with healthy white teeth and a scissors bite. Level bite is allowed.

The cheeks are not prominent. The eyes are small in comparison with the dimensions of the skull, almond-shaped and slanting, chestnut colored or slightly lighter, never yellow.

Its eyelids are well pigmented. The ears are high, “V” shaped, with rounded tips, fallen, and very close to the cheeks. The neck is moderately long, bulky and strong, without dewlap.

The muscular body is massive with a well supported back. The chest is wide and tall, reaching the level of the elbows with well arched ribs. The skin is thick and dark gray. The hair is short on the head and forelegs. On the body, the hair is abundant, straight, thicker and harder, 2½- 3½ inches (6–9 cm.) long. The next layer of hair is shorter and thick, with a lighter color. On the neck, the hair is longer and forms a mane. On the backside of the legs, the hair forms fringes of moderate length.

The tail is bushy, covered with longer and thicker hair. When the dog is relaxed it tends to hold the tail low, reaching the point of the hock or even lower. When the dog is alert and is paying attention or is in action, the tail is elevated. In this case it may rise above the level of the back, sickle shaped.

Gait


Harmonious, elastic, well coordinated, giving the impression of effortless power. Preferred gait is the trot.

Bruno Jura Hound

Bruno Jura Hound-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Bruno Jura hound is a domestic dog, developed in the Middle Ages for hunting in the Jura Mountains on the Swiss-French border.

They are found in a variety of colors and have a broad head and heavy wrinkles, which differentiate them from the other Swiss hounds. It is known for hunting fox, hare, and sometimes even small deer. The Bruno Jura Hound is a skilled scent follower and is capable of following the slightest trace of a scent over the rough terrain of the Jura mountains. It needs firm handling if kept solely for companionship.

Its size is similar to that of the Schweizer Laufhund, but it differs in the broadness of its head. It is related to the Bloodhound. The life expectancy of Bruno Jura hound is 12–13 years. An adult hound can weigh anywhere from 34 to 44 pounds (15.5–20 kg) and is from usually 17 to 23 inches (43–58 cm) tall.

Also called the Jura Laufhund, this dog is an excellent hunter of fox, hare, and small deer. Closely related to the St. Hubert Jura Hound, its head resembles the neighboring French hounds form which it descends. Not common as a companion, the Bruno Jura Hound needs specialized training if it is to be kept for this purpose. Coming in a variety of colors, the Jura Hound was developed in the Jura Mountains in the Swiss-French border. Its rich coloring, broad head, and heavy wrinkles differentiate this dog from other mountain hounds.

Types

Saint Hubert

Common belief is that this kind of dog is a descendant of the French Chien Saint Hubert. It is known for hunting fox, hare, boar. Its size is smaller to that of the other Bruno Jura Hound, but it heavier and differs in the broadness of its head. It is related to the Bloodhound. The life expectancy is 12–13 years. An adult hound can weigh anywhere from 40 to 55 pounds and is usually 16 to 20 inches (40–50 cm) tall.

The St. Hubert Jura Hound is a robust cold scent trailer that is only slightly taller than the Bruno Jura Hound. This dog was ideal for the harsh conditions of the Swiss mountains whence it came from. Closely related to the Jura Hound, this dog is an excellent scent trailer and can put on a surprising amount of speed and agility when necessary. Like the Jura Hound, the St. Hubert Jura Hound makes an attractive companion but needs firm handling and is most suitable for outdoor work.

Key facts

·         Country of Origin: Switzerland
·         Date of Origin: Middle Ages
·         First Use: Small game hunting
·         Use Today: Companion, hunting
·         Longevity: 12-13yrs
·         Other Name(s): Jura Laufhund St. Hubert
·         Weight: 34-44 lbs
·         Height: 18-23in

In France, some breeders are rebuilding this race and it is known as "Jura Hound type French Saint Hubert".

Broholmer dog

Broholmer-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Broholmer, also called the Danish Mastiff, is a large Molosser breed of dog from Denmark, recognized by the Danish Kennel Club and the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. It has been employed as a guard dog in the homes of the wealthy. The breed's numbers dwindled severely during World War II, but the dog made a successful return in the 1970s.

Description

The Denmark Broholmer is a dog that strongly resembles a Mastiff. It is large and powerful, with a loud, impressive bark and dominant walk. A well trained Broholmer should be calm, good tempered, and friendly, yet watchful towards strangers. Females stand about 27.5 inches (70 cm) and weigh in at 90–130 pounds (41–59 kg). Males stand about 29.5 inches (75 cm) and weigh in at 110–150 pounds (50–68 kg). The body is built square and rectangular with a large and massive head. The width and length of the skull and the length of the nose should be of equal length. The head is generally not carried very high. The coat is short and harsh, and the color can be light or brownish yellow, or black. Some white markings on the coat are permitted, and a black mask may be found. The average life span is around 7–12 years.

Historical note

The Broholmer breed was generated from a cross between English Mastiffs and local dogs in Germany, and was named after Sehested of Broholm, a game-keeper who lived in the 18th century. During the Second World War, the Broholmer became a victim of the strife and almost became extinct, but was saved by a group of Danish enthusiasts after isolated members were found in the 1970s. King Frederick VII and his consort, Countess Danner were owners of several Broholmers and one of their portraits depicts them with one of their dogs. The breed was established in the early 19th century and was moderately popular, especially as a guard dog in the homes of wealthy Danes.The Breed was imported to the UK in 2009 with a view to being put on the UK kennel clubs import list.



Brittany dog

Brittany dog-dogs-pets-dog breeds

The Brittany is a breed of gun dog bred primarily for bird hunting. Although it is often referred to as a spaniel, the breed's working characteristics are more akin to those of a pointer or setter. Brittanys were developed in the Brittany province of France between the 17th and 19th centuries, becoming officially recognized early in the 20th.

Description

Appearance

The Brittany is typically quite athletic, compact, energetic, and solidly built without being heavy. Their heads are of average size with floppy ears, expressions usually of intelligence, vigour, and alertness, and gait elastic, long, and free.

Most Brittanys are born with naturally short tails, yet others are rarely born with long tails, which are docked to a length of 3–10 centimetres (1.2–3.9 in)

The breed's coat color is varied: orange and white coat or liver and white are most common in the American Brittany; other colors include orange roan and liver roan, all of which are acceptable in the show ring. The American Brittany Standard specifies an acceptable tri-color of liver, orange, and white with very specific color placement.

Size

Brittanys are medium-sized dogs, with American lines (17.5–20.5 inches (44–52 cm) at the withers according to an AKC standard adopted in 1990[2]) tending to be larger and have a blockier head than French (17–20.5 inches (43–52 cm)), and females at the lower end. A properly constructed and healthy Brittany maintains a weight between 30–45 pounds (14–20 kg), depending upon height.

Types

Many breeders differentiate between "American" Brittanys and "French" style dogs. Although generally recognized as sub-sets of the same breed, there are recognizable differences between the two. The "American Brittany" is typically larger than the "French Brittany" and a bigger running dog while the smaller French Brittany generally works more closely to the guns, but will work according to the local terrain. However, some breeders consider these "differences" to be unsound generalizations and that American standards should be updated to reflect the breed's standard in its country of origin, i.e. France, where black has become an acceptable coat color since 1956 while it is still considered a fault in America.

Though it resembles a Spaniel-like dog used for flushing game, such as Springers and Cockers, Brittanys are more akin to pointers and all-purpose sporting dogs. Known in the United Kingdom as an HPR breed (Hunt, point, and retrieve), they are expected to point and retrieve all birds and ground game up to and including hare. These unique qualities have given the Brittany more Dual Champions than any other AKC Sporting Breed, a landmark reached with the 500th in 2006.

Temperament

The Brittany was originally bred as a hunting dog and noted for being easy to train and sweet-natured. The breed is generally more sensitive to correction than other hunters, and harsh corrections are often unnecessary. Brittanys can become very shy if not thoroughly socialized at a young age, and even among well-socialized dogs there is significant variation in levels of friendliness.

When well socialized, Brittanys are all around sound dogs, excelling as companions, family pets, field dogs. Eager to please and friendly, they generally learn quickly and are loyal and attached to their owners. They are energetic and need at least an hour of vigorous exercise every day, with many needing more than this. Some animals will be over-active or hyper-sensitive, but these problems are almost invariably due to lack of exercise and training, and are not characteristics of well cared-for dogs.

With more American dual champions (dogs with titles in both conformation shows and field trials) than any other breed, the Brittany maintains strong hunting instincts in all bloodlines.

Health

Brittanys are generally healthy and hardy dogs. The median lifespan for Brittanys in France is 12.6 years. A UK Kennel Club survey puts the breed's median lifespan at 12 years 11 months, with about 1 in 5 dogs dying of old age at an average of 14–15 years. Brittanys have no undercoat and need minimal grooming or bathing. However, their floppy ears tend to trap moisture in the ear canal and should be cleaned regularly.


Diseases found in the breed include Hip dysplasia, with 14.9% of Brittanys tested between 1974 and 2009 by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals displaying the condition, and a lesser rate of 10.3% for dogs born 2003-2004. The breed is listed among those commonly affected by Canine discoid lupus erythematosus. Epilepsy is also found.

Briquet Griffon Vendéen

Briquet Griffon Vendéen-pets-dogs-dog breeds

A Briquet Griffon Vendéen is a breed of hunting dog originating in France. Prior to the first World War it was bred down in size by the Comte d’Elva from the Grand Griffon Vendéen, a descendant of the Canis segusius used by the Gauls. The Briquet Griffon Vendéen was almost extinct after World War II, but thanks to the effort of Hubert Dezamy, a French dog show judge, the breed was restored.

Appearance

The Briquet Griffon Vendéen has a short head, low-set ears and a bushy double coat. It comes in solid or mixed colors, fawn, light brown, white and orange, white and gray and even tri-colored. They stand from 20 - 22 inches at the withers. They weigh from 48 to 53 lbs.

Temperament

The Briquet is a passionate hunter with stamina and fortitude. It should be able to pick up a cold trail as well as a hot one. Like its close relations the other vendeen hounds, the Briquet relishes its time outdoors with its family. While they are not high-strung, they are lively and enthusiastic dogs. Bred to work in packs as well as on their own, they get along well with other dogs and are not overly possessive about anything. They are fine companion for children.

Griffons do not particularly take to being told what to do. They do not mind being cajoled, bribed, or played with- and if these things lead them to do something their owner likes, then everyone is happy.

Exercise

All the Griffons are keen hunters with strong instincts. They thrive on being able to follow their noses at least once a day. Provided with a large, safe area in which to sniff and explore to its heart's content, a Briquette will be a very happy dog- even if it is just once a week. Short of hunting opportunities, Griffons must have time outdoors. Long walks are most appreciated- bred as hunting dogs, they do not tire easily.

Grooming


The tousled appearance of the Griffon comes naturally, and any trimming is highly discouraged. Its double coat must be brushed and combed. The burrs and mud it picks up in its travels need to be brushed off its legs and belly. Its long ears can harbor infection and should be cleaned regularly.

Briard dog

Briard-dogs-pets-dog breeds

The Briard  is an ancient breed of large herding dog, originally from France. A Briard-type dog appears in Gaston Febus' Livre de chasse ("Book of the Hunt"), written in the late 14th century. According to legend, about the same time, a Briard fought a judicial duel with Robert Macaire to avenge its owner's murder, Aubry of Montdidier. Charlemagne, Napoleon, Thomas Jefferson, and Lafayette are all said to have owned Briards. It became popular after the Paris dog show of 1863, after the breed had been fixed, with crosses with the Beauceron and the Barbet. During the First World War, the Briard was used, almost to the point of extinction, by the French army as a sentry, messenger, and to search for wounded soldiers. The Briard's modern-day roles include police, military and search-and-rescue work, as well as companion dog.

Description

Appearance

The Briard can be tawny, black, grey or blue however there are variations in each color. Briards stand 58 to 69 cm (22 to 27 inches) at the withers. Ear cropping has been common in the breed, although more breeders are leaving the ears in their natural state since ear cropping is becoming illegal in most European countries, including the Briard's land of origin, France. When cropped, the ears should stand erect and parallel with the base being wide and tapering to a rounded point with hair covering the opening. Their long coat requires an extensive amount of grooming. The outer coat is coarse, hard and dry (making a dry rasping sound between the fingers). It lies down flat, falling naturally in long, slightly waving locks, having the sheen of good health. On the shoulders the length of the hair is generally six inches or more. The undercoat is fine and tight on all the body. The head is well covered with hair which lies down, forming a natural part in the center. The eyebrows do not lie flat but, instead, arch up and out in a curve that lightly veils the eyes. The hair is never so abundant that it masks the form of the head or completely covers the eyes. Briards come in a variety from different colors.

The breed characteristics of the Briard, are of a medium-sized, rugged, agile dog, having harsh coat and double dewclaws mounted low on each rear leg, resembling additional toes. Each double dew claw should have bone substance and nail, giving the appearance of a wider rear foot. Bred for centuries to herd, the additional digits on each rear foot give the Briard the ability of pivoting on one foot for quick turns and complete turn-arounds, which are necessary when herding and guarding their flocks.[citation needed] Throughout history, the Briard has retained an appropriate balance of size and build that is required for both herding and protection of their flocks. They are not too large to tire during herding yet large enough to fend off predators such as foxes and wolves.

Temperament

The Briard is a very loyal and protective breed, and is sometimes called "a heart of gold wrapped in fur". Once they have bonded to their family members, they will be very protective. They can be aloof with strangers - new introductions should be on the dog's terms, including furniture or the addition of a new baby into the household. They require showing that the new intrusion is friendly and free of conflict. They must be taught that it is a good thing and not harmful. They have proven to be a very good breed to have around children of all ages. Indeed, these dogs rapidly develop an affection to their owners. They are very emotional, capable of crying for a long time after their owners' departure and celebrate their return in a very enthusiastic way.

It is also important that the Briard be introduced to several different individuals of all ages and in all types of situations. Socialization starting at a very young age is mandatory. Briards should be walked as often as possible, to many different places, and they will develop into a well rounded animal. Pet stores, city parks and malls are a good place to start.


The Briard has been bred for centuries to herd and to protect their flocks. To domesticated briards, their family is the flock and all strangers may appear to be predators. Letting them know that the public in general are friendly and not harmful will help them establish a lifelong socialization pattern which will result in an outgoing and happy dog. This socialization with the public in general will not diminish their capacity for protecting and guarding their family.


The Briard has a very good memory. Once a lesson is learned, good or bad, the knowledge will be retained for a long time to come. Sometimes they may appear to be strong minded and stubborn but these are a few of the Briard's characteristics. They were bred for centuries to think for themselves and to act upon their conclusions, sometimes to the point of thinking what the "flock" will do ahead of time.

These are some of the traits that the Briard has retained throughout history. Even if a Briard is a city dweller, they have a degree of herding ability within them. If ever, during their lifetime, they are introduced to sheep or cattle, they will automatically start doing what they were bred to do, herding. They will even herd humans by nibbling on their ankles or guiding with their heads and guide them to his master if ordered.

Service and therapy roles

Briards have been used in a variety of service and therapy roles to help those with disabilities and comfort those in hospitals, schools and retirement communities. Briards are also being trained as autism service dogs and PTSD service dogs for both adults and children. With their keen intelligence, tactile coat interaction, and loyalty, they make a huge difference in the quality of life for those with disabilities or in recovery.

Activities

Briards can compete in dog agility trials, obedience, showmanship, flyball, Schutzhund, tracking, and herding events. Herding instincts and trainability can be measured at noncompetitive herding tests. Briards exhibiting basic herding instincts can be trained to compete in herding trials.

Study on blindness using Briards

This breed is also commonly screened for congenital stationary night blindness (SNB) with a DNA test. SNB is inherited through recessive genes. Progressive retinal atrophy PRA, is a disease that causes nerve cells at the back of the eye to degenerate. The condition usually begins in older pets and can lead to blindness. Progressive retinal degeneration or atrophy (PRD/PRA) represents a group of inherited eye diseases characterized by abnormal development or premature degeneration of the retina. There are two types of photoreceptors in the retina and these are the light-sensitive rods and cones. They are responsible for detecting light and converting it into an electrical signal that travels to the brain. When the photoreceptor cells deteriorate, vision is lost because the animal has no way to generate an image from the light reaching the retina. Puppies are usually blind before one year of age. For the first time ever, animals (Briards) that were born blind gained the ability to see after undergoing gene therapy, according to research from the University of Florida, Cornell University and the University of Pennsylvania. UF researchers had established that the apparently harmless adeno-associated virus can carry healthy copies of a gene into the cells of the retina, which is composed of layers of light-sensitive nerve cells. The healthy gene's mission: to produce a protein critical to translating light waves into nerve impulses that can be interpreted as images by the brain. The study was successful and the puppies could see in the eye that was treated. Officials from the Foundation Fighting Blindness, which supported the study with grant funds, said the success in reversing blindness in dogs is an important advance.

Brazilian Terrier

Brazilian Terrier-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Brazilian Terrier, is a breed of dog developed in Brazil. It is one of several terriers probably descended from the combining of the Fox Terrier with other small breeds.

Description

Origin

The Brazilian Terrier is one of the two native breeds of Brazil. Jack Russell Terriers were brought to Brazil from Europe in the 1800s and served as the nearest ancestor of the Brazilian Terrier. Breeds such as Miniature Pinschers and large Chihuahuas were also crossed with J.R. Terriers to develop this dog. It is said that this kind of breed is rarely found outside Brazil.

Appearance

This terrier stands between 13-16 in (35.5-40.5 cm) at the withers. Its coat is always tri-color (white and tan with black). A docked tail, narrow chest, flat triangular skull and a well balanced body are the most common characteristics. The ears are half-pricked and folded, with the tip falling down.

Temperament

The temperament of this breed is very similar to a Jack Russell Terrier, very alert, perky and intelligent. Very friendly, loves to play and dig holes. Spirited and obedient but fearless, as watchdogs they will only bark to get your attention and then leave the rest up to you. This breed needs a firm, consistent and confident pack leader, otherwise, they will become willful and determined. Their hunting instinct is the strongest among average terriers and should not be trusted with other small animals.

Living conditions, exercise, and grooming


Small apartments or spaces are not good for this type of dog, because they are very active, an average size yard is highly recommended. It also needs both physical and mental activities to be happy, a common tendency is becoming destructive and restless if kept indoor, long daily walks is the best option.

Brazilian Dogo


Brazilian Dogo(Portuguese: Dogue Brasileiro), also called Brazilian Dogge, is a Molosser-type working dog breed originating in Brazil. It is neither recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) nor the American Kennel Club (AKC). However, it has the official national recognition of the Confederação Brasileira de Cinofilia(CBKC)  - Breeds not recognized by the FCI .

Appearance

The Brazilian Dogo represents the Dogge subtype of Mastiffs. It is a medium-sized, strong, agile and muscular dog, being massive without creating heavy or stocky impression. Males are 54 – 60 cm tall (ideal height 58 cm) and weigh 29 – 43 kg (ideal weight 39 kg); females 50 – 58 cm tall (ideal height 56 cm) and weigh 23 – 39 kg (ideal weight 33 kg). The breed is therefore lighter and athletic, which is equally tall but significantly heavier. There are two coat variants: short (less than 2.5 cm) and medium-length (from 2.5 to 4.7 cm). The texture of the shiny coat is harsh and dense. All the colours and combinations are accepted.

Behavior

The Brazilian Dogo is an active and balanced, yet alert, fearless, and watchful dog with a strong guarding instinct. Towards its family, it is obedient, gentle, and affectionate. However, it is serious towards strangers and will be ready to attack if provoked. It should not demonstrate aggressive behaviour without a clear reason - such as purposeful provocation - not even with other dogs. Instead of the more common working trial, a specific character trial is demanded for the breed to reach championship in Brazilian dog shows.

Utilization


The Brazilian Dogo is mainly used as a guard dog. The Brazilian Dogge was created to be a functional guard dog. And it is considered a great guardian dog. It is also used as a shepherd dog and hunting dog. 

Braque Saint-Germain

Braque Saint-Germain-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Braque Saint-Germain (FCI No. 115) (translated into English as the St. Germain Pointing Dog) is a medium-large breed of dog, a versatile hunter used for hunting as a gun dog and pointer as well as for hunting other small game. Braque is a term meaning pointing dogs. The breed was created around 1830 by crossing English and French pointing type dogs.

Appearance

A typical pointer, with a medium build and an attractive fawn and white coat, drop ears, and a long tail which is held level while the dog is working. The Braque Saint-Germain stands 56–62 centimetres (22–24 in) at the withers, females somewhat smaller.

History

Bred first in the royal kennels at Compiègne around 1830 from a mix of English and Continental pointers, the breed grew in fame in Saint Germain en Laye, where it received its name. Although a popular hunting dog, the breed achieved its greatest fame as a showdog. Starting from the first dog show in France in 1863, it was the most shown pointing breed. The French breed club was established in 1913. The breed is recognised internationally by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in Group 7, Pointing Dogs, Section 1.1 Continental Type Pointing Dog. It is also recognised in North America by the United Kennel Club as of 2006. The breed is also recognized by a number of minor registries, hunting clubs, and internet-based dog registry businesses, and promoted as a rare breed for those seeking a unique pet.

Health and temperament


No unusual health problems or claims of extraordinary health have been documented for this breed. Temperament is described in the breed standard as having a soft mouth (for retrieving without damaging the game), handles rough treatment well, and is a "hunter above all" that appreciates living with its human's family.

English Setter

The English Setter is a medium-size breed of dog. It is part of the Setter family, which includes the red Irish Setters, Irish Red a...

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