Dogo Cubano


Dogo Cubano-pets-dogs-dog breeds

Dogo Cubano also known as the Cuban Dogge , Cuban Bloodhound and Cuban Mastiff is an extinct dog breed from Cuba. It was of the Bull Mastiff type and was used for dog fighting.
The breed was introduced in Cuba to capture runaway slaves (cimarrones). After the abolition of slavery they ceased to exist in time.

Appearance

They were between a Bulldog and a Mastiff in size. The muzzle was short, broad, and abruptly truncated. The head was broad and flat, and the lips, deeply pendulous. The medium-sized ears, were also partly pendulous, the tail rather short, cylindrical, and turned upwards and forwards towards the tip. They were described as a "rusty wolf-colour", with black face, lips, and legs. They were very notable for their chasing of slaves.

History

The Cuban Mastiff developed from several breeds of bulldogs, Mastiffs and cattle dogs becoming an ideal fighter and property guardian. It is possible that some specimens of this breed were brought to America where they were employed as watchdogs. They were also used as slave retrievers by the British during the Second Maroon War, by the French during the Saint-Domingue expedition, as well as the American in the southern States.

The breed is considered extinct since the end of the 19th century, but there have been reports which state that although no pure Dogo Cubanos remain, the dogs used in today’s fighting pits in Cuba are descendants of the crossbreed between Pit Bulls, Cordoba Fighting Dogs, Dogo Argentinos and the few pure Dogo Cubanos that were remaining by the beginning of the 20th century. The modern descendant of this rare dog breed is much larger and stronger than the original and resembles the American Pit Bull Terrier.

Dogo Argentino


Dogo Argentino-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Dogo Argentino is a large, white, muscular dog that was developed in Argentina primarily for the purpose of big-game hunting, including wild boar; the breeder, Antonio Nores Martínez, also wanted a dog that would exhibit steadfast bravery and willingly protect its human companion. It was first bred in 1928, from the Cordoba Fighting Dog along with a wide array of other breeds including the Great Dane.

Appearance

The Dogo Argentino is a large white short-coated dog with muscular and strong body that rarely has any markings (any type of marking or spot on the coat is considered a flaw). While it is not accepted in many of the clubs, a Dogo Argentino can have a black spot on its head known as 'pirata' and it is accepted by the Federación Cinológica Argentina.

Breed Standard Height: for females is 60–65 centimetres (24–26 inches) and for males is 60–68 centimetres (24–27 inches), measured at the withers. Weight: from 40–45 kilograms (88–99 pounds). The length of the body is just slightly longer than the height. The length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) is approximately equal to one-half of the dog's height at the withers. The head has a broad, slightly domed skull and the muzzle is slightly higher at the nose than the stop, when viewed in profile. The tail is set low, thick at the base and tapers to a point. It has been described as looking similar to the American Bulldog but very tall with a solid white coat. The breed has also been described as looking similar to the American Pit Bull Terrier, even though the American Pit Bull Terrier is far smaller (13.5 to 27 kilograms).

Temperament

Dogos are big-game hunters and are also trained for search and rescue, police assistance, service dogs, guide for the blind, competitive obedience, Schutzhund and military work.

Dogo Argentinos have been bred specifically to allow better socialization with other dogs and are well suited for group environments. They get along with other pets in most rural and urban settings ranging from a complete outdoor farm dog to urban housing with a small yard, to crowded apartment buildings. Because aggressive traits are purposely bred out, attacks on humans or other pets are extremely rare. The Dogo has a life expectancy of 10 to 12 years.

Health

As in the Dalmatian, white Boxer, and the white Bull Terrier, the dogo may experience pigment-related deafness. There is possibility of an approximate 10% deafness rate overall with some dogos afflicted uniaurally (one deaf ear) and some binaurally (deaf in both ears). Studies have shown that the incidence of deafness is drastically reduced when the only breeding stock used is that with bilaterally normal hearing.

Hunting and legality

While the Dogo Argentino was bred primarily from the extinct Cordoba Fighting Dog, it was bred to be a cooperative hunter, i.e. to accompany other catch dogs and bay dogs on the hunt without fighting with the other dogs. Aggressive traits inherent in the Cordoban Dog were specifically bred out to enable a stable cooperative nature in a pack. However, in areas where illegal dog fighting continues, the Dogo Argentino has been used for fighting due to its fearless nature and great stamina.

The Dogo Argentino is banned in certain countries including Ukraine, Denmark, Iceland, Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and the Cayman Islands. In the United Kingdom, under the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991, it is illegal to own a Dogo Argentino without lawful authority.


Dobermann(dog)


Dobermann-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Dobermann , or Doberman Pinscher in the United States and Canada, is a medium-large breed of domestic dog originally developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann, a tax collector from Germany. The Dobermann has a long muzzle and stands on its toes (not the pads) and is not usually heavy-footed. Ideally, they have an even and graceful gait. Traditionally, the ears are cropped and posted and the tail is docked. However, in some countries it is illegal to do so. Dobermanns have markings on the chest, paws/legs, muzzle, above the eyes, and underneath the tail.

Dobermanns are well known as intelligent, alert and tenaciously loyal companions and guard dogs. Personality varies a great deal between each individual, but if taken care of and trained properly they tend to be loving and devoted companions. The Dobermann is driven, strong and sometimes stubborn. Owning one requires commitment and care, but if trained well, they can be wonderful family dogs. With a consistent approach they can be easy to train and will learn very quickly. If properly trained, they can be excellent with children.

Appearance

World Breed standards are published by the FEDERATION CYNOLOGIQUE INTERNATIONALE or FCI (World Canine Organisation) on the advice of the IDC (International Dobermann Club) which is the Dobermann breeds governing council and has 36 countries in its member list. To become a world champion, dogs are judged to FCI standards. The AKC has its own standards as do some other countries although most adopt FCI standards as their own. The standard describes that the Dobermann is of medium size, strong and muscularly built. Through the elegant lines of its body, its proud stature, and its expression of determination, it conforms to the ideal dog. The body of the Dobermann should appear to be almost square, particularly in males Despite his substance he shall be elegant and noble, which will be evident in his bodyline. He must be exceptionally suitable as a companion, protection and working dog and also as a family dog

The Dobermann should have a proud, watchful, determined and obedient temperament. The dog was originally intended as a guard dog, so males should have a masculine, muscular, noble appearance. Females are thinner, but should not be spindly. It should also be noted that the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed standard differs from the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) standards and the US dogs have not evolved in the manner of the European dogs to an often larger and heavier dog leading many to argue that Dobermanns and Doberman Pinschers should eventually be considered and evaluated differently. The Doberman Pinscher temperament is also often considered to be milder and less focused than the Dobermann. This has in turn led to a demand in the US and Canada for imported dogs from European breeders.

Size and proportions

Although the breed standards vary among kennel and breed clubs, most take guidance from the FCI who describe that the dog typically stands between 68 to 72 centimetres (27 to 28 in), and The Kennel Club in the UK quote 69 centimetres (27 in) as being ideal; the female is typically somewhere between 63 to 68 centimetres (25 to 27 in), 65 centimetres (26 in) being ideal. The Dobermann has a square frame: its length should equal its height to the withers, and the length of its head, neck and legs should be in proportion to its body.

The standards for the weight of the Dobermann are described by the FCI. The ideal dog must have sufficient size for an optimal combination of strength, endurance and agility. The male generally weighs between 40–45 kilograms (88–99 lb) and the female between 32–35 kilograms (71–77 lb).

Color

Two different color genes exist in the Dobermann, one for black (B) and one for color dilution (D). There are nine possible combinations of these alleles (BBDD, BBDd, BbDD, BbDd, BBdd, Bbdd, bbDD, bbDd, bbdd), which result in four different color phenotypes: black, blue, red and fawn (a.k.a. Isabella).[6] The traditional and most common color occurs when both the color and dilution genes have at least one dominant allele (i.e., BBDD, BBDd, BbDD or BbDd), and is commonly referred to as black or black and rust (also called black and tan). The red, red rust or brown coloration occurs when the black gene has two recessive alleles but the dilution gene has at least one dominant allele (i.e., bbDD, bbDd). "Blue" and "fawn" are controlled by the color dilution gene. The blue Doberman has the color gene with at least one dominant allele and the dilution gene with both recessive alleles (i.e., BBdd or Bbdd). The fawn (a.k.a. Isabella) coloration is the least common, occurring only when both the color and dilution genes have two recessive alleles (i.e., bbdd). Thus, the blue color is a diluted black, and the fawn color is a diluted red.

Expression of the color dilution gene is a disorder called Color Dilution Alopecia. Although not life-threatening, these dogs can develop skin problems.

In 1976, a "white" Doberman Pinscher was whelped and was subsequently bred to her son, who was also bred to his litter sisters. This tight inbreeding continued for some time to allow the breeders to "fix" the mutation. White Dobermanns are a cream color with pure white markings and icy blue eyes. Although this is consistent with albinism, the proper characterization of the mutation is currently unknown. The animals are commonly known as tyrosinase-positive albinoids, lacking melanin in oculocutaneous structures. This condition is caused by a partial deletion in gene SLC45A2.

Tail

The Dobermann's natural tail is fairly long, but individual dogs often have a short tail as a result of docking, a procedure in which the majority of the tail is surgically removed shortly after birth.
The practice of docking has been around for centuries, and is older than the Dobermann as a breed. The putative reason for docking is to ensure that the tail does not get in the way of the dog's work. Docking has always been controversial. Docking and Cropping has been written out of the Breed Standard by FCI and IDC and dogs born 2016 onwards will not be allowed to participate in IDC world titles without a full tail and natural ears. This is mirrored in most EU and Commonwealth countries. In the UK, Cropped dogs have been banned from show for a number of years and the practice is illegal for UK born dogs, this now also applies to docking. Veterinary Certificates are required as proof to avoid prosecution on imported animals. The American Kennel Club standard for Doberman Pinschers includes a tail docked near the 2nd vertebra. Docking is a common practice in the United States, Russia and Japan (as well as a number of other countries with Dobermann populations), where it is legal. In many European countries and Australia, docking has been made illegal.

Ears

Dobermanns often have their ears cropped, as do many other breeds, a procedure that is functionally related to breed type for both the traditional guard duty and effective sound localization. According to the Doberman Pinscher Club of America, ears are "normally cropped and carried erect". Like tail docking, ear cropping is illegal in some countries.

Health

The Dobermann's lifespan is about 10–13 years, on average. They may suffer from a number of health concerns. Common serious health problems include dilated cardiomyopathy, cervical vertebral instability (CVI), von Willebrand's disease (a bleeding disorder for which genetic testing has been available since 2000; the test enables both parents of a prospective litter to be tested for the carrier gene, thus preventing inheritance of the disease), and prostatic disease. Less serious common health concerns include hypothyroidism and hip dysplasia. Canine compulsive disorder is also common. Studies have shown that the Doberman Pinscher suffers from prostatic diseases, (such as bacterial prostatiti, prostatic cysts, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and benign hyperplasia) more than any other breed.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a major cause of death in Dobermanns. This disease affects Dobermanns more than any other breed. Nearly 40% of DCM diagnoses are for Dobermann Pinschers, followed by German Shepherds at 13%. Research has shown that the breed is affected by an attenuated wavy fiber type of DCM that affects many other breeds, as well as an additional, fatty infiltration-degenerative type that appears to be specific to Dobermann Pinscher and Boxer breeds. This serious disease is likely to be fatal in most Dobermanns affected.

Across multiple studies, more than half of the Dobermanns studied develop the condition. Roughly a quarter of Dobermann Pinschers who developed cardiomyopathy died suddenly from unknown causes, and an additional fifty percent died of congestive heart failure In addition to being more prevalent, this disease is also more serious in Doberman Pinschers. Following diagnosis, the average non-Dobermann has an expected survival time of 8 months; for Dobermann Pinschers, the expected survival time is less than 2 months. Although the causes for the disease are largely unknown, there is evidence that it is a familial disease inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Investigation into the genetic causes of canine DCM may lead to therapeutic and breeding practices to limit its impact

German Hound


German Hound-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The German Hound  is a breed of dog originating in Westphalia, a region of Germany. The German Hound is of the scenthound type, used for hunting both large and small game. The breed is normally referred to as the Deutsche Bracke in English, rather than by the translation of the name, German Hound.

Appearance

The German Hound is a small hound, 40 – 53 cm (16 - 21 ins) at the withers, with long, drooped ears and a long, narrow tail. It is distinguished by a long, somewhat narrow head, and a rectangular body, described as "elegant".
The coat has hard, almost bristly, short fur, usually tricolor (red to yellow with a black mantle), with white markings called Bracken marks - a white muzzle, chest, legs, collar, and tip of the tail, and a blaze on the head.

Health and character

No specific diseases or claims of extraordinary health have been documented for this breed. According to the original German breed club, although it is a hunting dog, it is affectionate and benefits from living with the family rather than in a kennel. It is a very persistent tracking dog with a good sense of direction.

Danish–Swedish Farmdog


 Danish–Swedish Farmdog-pets-dogs-dog breeds

Dansk-svensk gårdshund (Danish–Swedish Farmdog) is a Pure breed of dog that has its origin in Denmark and southern Sweden, but now has become popular all over Scandinavia. DSF is an old native breed which historically lived on farms in the eastern part of Denmark and southernmost part of Sweden (i.e. on both sides of The Sound, the narrow strait that separates the Danish island of Zealand from the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula), serving as a farmdog, guarding their people, farmed animals and the farm itself from strangers and intruders, catching rats and as a hunting dog. There are some indications that the breed originates from the Pinscher breeds and the British white hunting terriers. DSF has a soft and gentle temperament, but still has the strength to guard its family. Danish-Swedish Farmdogs were also companion dogs, making them the ideal pet for Scandinavian farmers. Though as the farms started to get bigger and modern machinery started to be introduced, the farmers had no need for the little dogs. The breed slowly started to die out.

Name

The Danish–Swedish Farmdog became a recognized breed in Denmark and Sweden in 1987. At that time, the two countries got together and agreed on the name of the breed, and also on the breed standard written by judge and breeder Lars Adeheimer, Sweden and judge Ole Staunskjaer, Denmark. The DSF was used as a farm dog for many hundreds of years, and before becoming a recognized breed it was known under the local name "Skrabba", "Skåneterrier", "råttehund", "rat dog").

Appearance

The FCI standard says that a DSF should be 30–39 cm of height with a compact body. The relation between withers height and body length should be 9 to 10. The head is rather small and triangular with a well emphasized stop. The coat is hard, short and smooth in texture, with white as a dominating color, with one or several patches of different color combination. The tail could be long, half bobtail or bobtail.

Temperament

The Danish–Swedish Farmdog is a very friendly, easygoing breed. Not only does it work on farms as a rat extinguisher and alerting to intruders, but it is also a companion to adults, and is known to befriend and play with the children of the household.

The Danish–Swedish Farmdog is unlike a terrier - even though it is often mistaken as one - it is very mild and gentle in temper. Unlike the high-strung nature of the terrier, the nature of the DSF allows it to do its job, as well as be calm and loving during times without work. This makes it an ideal house companion.

The DSF is a not a high energy dog, but loves having a job. The breed is new to the USA, and can only now start to be seen in sports such as flyball and dog agility. The DSF is also known for its excellent mousing skills and can perform sports such as going to ground and earthdog. They are also very speedy and quick, and love all types of lure coursing.

In 2010, the breed club, Danish-Swedish Farmdogs USA, made application to AKC-FSS for recognition of the breed. In January 2011, the American Kennel Club (AKC) added the breed to its Foundation Stock Service. The Danish-Swedish Farmdog is now eligible to compete in various AKC companion events such as obedience, agility, rally and more. In November 2011, the AKC announced that as of July 2012, FSS breeds would be eligible for Open Conformation shows.

Dandie Dinmont Terrier


Dandie Dinmont Terrier-pets-dogs-dog breeds

A Dandie Dinmont Terrier is a small Scottish breed of dog in the terrier family. The breed has a very long body, short legs, and a distinctive topknot of hair on the head. A character in Sir Walter Scott's novel Guy Mannering has lent the name to the breed, with Dandie Dinmont thought to be based on James Davidson, who is credited as being the originator of the modern breed. Davidson's dogs descended from earlier terrier owning families, including the Allans of Holystone, Northumberland.

There are three breed clubs in the UK supporting the breed, although it is registered as a Vulnerable Native Breed by the Kennel Club due to its low number of puppy registrations on a yearly basis. The breed is friendly but tough and is suitable for interaction with older children. There are no breed specific health concerns, but they can be affected by spinal problems due to their elongated body and the breed is affected by canine cancer at a higher than average rate.

Description

The breed has short legs, with an elongated body. Unusually among Scottish terrier breeds, it has pendulous ears. The neck is muscular, having developed from the breed's use against larger game. The typical height at the withers is 8–11 inches (20–28 cm), and they can weigh anywhere between 18–24 pounds (8.2–10.9 kg).

While the Dandie generally is a hardy breed, it may have issue climbing stairs. They have a silky coat which forms a topknot on top of the dog's head. The Dandie Dinmont Terrier has a similar body shape to the Skye Terrier, but the Skye's coat is thicker and longer.

The coat comes in two colour ranges, pepper and mustard. Pepper ranges from dark blueish black to very light silvery gray; mustard can vary from reddish brown to fawn, with the head appearing to be almost white. Typically, the legs and feet are of a darker colour with the lighter colour on the body slowly blending into that on the legs. The depth of the coat can reach up to 2 inches (5.1 cm). The colour of the coat is usually set by the time the dog reaches eight months of age, but the Dandie Dinmont Terrier will continue to mature physically until around two years old.

Temperament

The breed is tough but usually friendly and is suitable for older children. It makes both a good companion and a guard dog but is among the most docile of the terrier breeds; they are usually quite undemanding of their owners. However they are known for their ability to dig large holes in a short space of time.They can be trained to be good with cats but should not be trusted around smaller animals such as hamsters or rats. They are described as being "very game", in that they are prone to challenging other animals, including foxes, and in some cases other dogs.

Health

Due to the breed's elongated body, there can be back problems within the breed, specifically with intervertebral discs in the dog's back. These discs can sometimes slip out of place, resulting in spinal disc herniation. Symptoms depend on what part of the dog's back is affected; they can include paralysis with loss of bladder and bowel control in the worst cases.

Following work by the breed clubs to ensure that any reoccurring health problems are dealt with, there are no especially common conditions affecting the Dandie Dinmont Terrier. However, minor problems affecting the breed can include hypothyroidism, primary closed angle glaucoma and Cushing's syndrome. In order to combat glaucoma in the breed, the breed clubs recommend that Dandies should have a procedure called a gonioscopy performed on them at regular intervals throughout their lives. The Dandie is also at slightly higher risk of canine cancer than average. The average life expectancy of a Dandie Dinmont Terrier is 11–13 years.

Dalmatian dog


Dalmatian dog-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The Dalmatian is a breed of medium-sized dog, noted for its unique black or liver spotted coat and mainly used as a carriage dog in its early days. Its roots trace back to Croatia and its historical region of Dalmatia. Today, it is a popular family pet and many dog enthusiasts enter Dalmatians into kennel club competitions.

Characteristics

Body

The Dalmatian is a medium sized, well-defined, muscular dog with excellent endurance and stamina. When full grown, according to the American Kennel Club breed standard, it stands from 19 to 23 inches (48 to 58 cm) tall, with males usually slightly larger than females. Both the AKC and The Kennel Club in the UK allows height up to 24 inches (61 cm) but that isn't ideal. The outline of the dog should be square when viewed from the side: the body is as long from forechest to buttocks as it is tall at the withers, and the shoulders are well-laid back, the stifle is well-bent and the hocks are well-let down. The Dalmatian's feet are round with well-arched toes, and the nails are usually white or the same colour as the dog's spots. The thin ears taper towards the tip and are set fairly high and close to the head. Eye color varies between brown, amber, or blue, with some dogs having one blue eye and one brown eye, or other combinations.

Coat

Dalmatian puppies are born with plain white coats and their first spots usually appear within 3 to 4 weeks after birth, however spots are visible on their skin. After about a month, they have most of their spots, although they continue to develop throughout life at a much slower rate. Spots usually range in size from 30 to 60 mm, and are most commonly black or brown (liver) on a white background. Other, more rare colors, include blue (a blue-grayish color), brindle, mosaic, tricolor-ed (with tan spotting on the eyebrows, cheeks, legs, and chest), and orange or lemon (dark to pale yellow). Patches of color may appear anywhere on the body, mostly on the head or ears, and usually, consist of a solid color. Patches are visible at birth and are not a group of connected spots and are identifiable by the smooth edge of the patch.

The Dalmatian coat is usually short, fine, and dense; however, smooth-coated Dalmatians occasionally produce long-coated offspring. Long-coated Dalmatians are not acceptable in the breed standard, however, these individuals experience much less shedding than their smooth-coated counterparts, which shed considerably year-round. The standard variety's short, stiff hairs often weave into carpet, clothing, upholstery and nearly any other kind of fabric and can be difficult to remove. Weekly grooming with a hound mitt or curry can lessen the amount of hair Dalmatians shed, although nothing can completely prevent shedding. Due to the minimal amount of oil in their coats, Dalmatians lack a "dog smell" and stay fairly clean relative to many other dog breeds.

Litter size

Dalmatians usually have litters of six to nine pups, but they have been known to have larger litters on occasion, such as a massive eighteen puppy brood born in January 2009 (all were healthy).

Health

Dalmatians are a relatively healthy and easy to keep breed. Like other breeds, Dalmatians display a propensity towards certain health problems specific to their breed, such as deafness, allergies and urinary stones. Reputable breeders have their puppies BAER (Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response) tested to ensure the status of the hearing on their pups. The Dalmatian Club of America lists the average lifespan of a Dalmatian at between 11 and 13 years, although some can live as long as 15 to 16 years. Breed health surveys in the US and the UK show an average lifespan of 9.9 and 11.55 years, respectively. In their late teens, both males and females may suffer bone spurs and arthritic conditions. Autoimmune thyroiditis may be a relatively common condition for the breed, affecting 11.6% of dogs.

Deafness

A genetic predisposition for deafness is a serious health problem for Dalmatians; only about 70% have normal hearing. Deafness was not recognized by early breeders, so the breed was thought to be unintelligent. Even after recognizing the problem as a genetic fault, breeders did not understand the dogs' nature, and deafness in Dalmatians continues to be a frequent problem.

Researchers now know deafness in albino and piebald animals is caused by the absence of mature melanocytes in the inner ear. This may affect one or both ears. The condition is also common in other canine breeds that share a genetic propensity for light pigmentation. This includes, but is not limited to Bull Terriers, Dogo Argentinos, Poodles, Boxers, Border Collies and Great Danes.

Typically, only dogs with bilateral hearing are bred, although those with unilateral hearing, and even dogs with bilateral deafness, make fine pets with appropriate training. The Dalmatian Club of America's position on deaf pups is that they should not be used for breeding, and that humane euthanasia may be considered as an "alternative to placement". Deaf Dalmatian puppies can be difficult to home, due to increased aggression and difficulty in managing behavior. Dalmatians with large patches of colour present at birth may have a lower rate of deafness. Selecting for this trait may reduce the frequency of deafness in the breed. However, patches are a disqualifying factor in Dalmatian breed standards in an effort to preserve the spotted coat (the continual breeding of patched dogs would result in heavily patched Dalmatians with few spots).
Blue-eyed Dalmatians are thought to have a greater incidence of deafness than brown-eyed Dalmatians, although a mechanism of association between the two characteristics has yet to be conclusively established. Some kennel clubs discourage the use of blue-eyed dogs in breeding programs.

Hip dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is another disease that affects nearly 5% of purebred Dalmatians, causing those to experience limping, fatigue, moderate to severe pain, and trouble standing up. Most Dalmatians who eventually develop hip dysplasia are born with normal hips, but the soft tissues surrounding the joint grow abnormally due to their genetic make-up. The disease may affect both hips, or only the right or left hip, leading afflicted dogs to walk or run with an altered gait.

Hyperuricemia

Dalmatians, like humans, can suffer from hyperuricemia. Dalmatians' livers have trouble breaking down uric acid, which can build up in the blood serum (hyperuricemia) causing gout. Uric acid can also be excreted in high concentration into the urine, causing kidney stones and bladder stones. These conditions are most likely to occur in middle-aged males. Males over 10 are prone to kidney stones and should have their calcium intake reduced or be given preventive medication. To reduce the risk of gout and stones, owners should carefully limit the intake of purines by avoiding giving their dogs food containing organ meats, animal byproducts, or other high-purine ingredients. Hyperuricemia in Dalmatians responds to treatment with orgotein, the veterinary formulation of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase.

Dalmatian-Pointer Backcross Project

Hyperuricemia in Dalmatians (as in all breeds) is inherited, but unlike other breeds, the "normal" gene for uricase is not present in the breed's gene pool. Therefore, there is no possibility of eliminating hyperuricemia among pure-bred Dalmatians. The only possible solution to this problem must then be crossing Dalmatians with other breeds to reintroduce the "normal" uricase gene. This led to the foundation of the Dalmatian-Pointer Backcross Project, which aims to reintroduce the normal uricase gene into the Dalmatian breed. The backcross used a single English Pointer; subsequent breedings have all been to purebred Dalmatians. This project was started in 1973 by Dr. Robert Schaible. The first cross (F1) hybrids did not resemble Dalmatians very closely. The F1s were then crossed back to purebreds. This breeding produced puppies of closer resemblance to the pure Dalmatian. By the fifth generation in 1981, they resembled purebreds so much, Dr. Schaible convinced the AKC to allow two of the hybrids to be registered as purebreds. Then AKC President William F. Stifel stated, "If there is a logical, scientific way to correct genetic health problems associated with certain breed traits and still preserve the integrity of the breed standard, it is incumbent upon the American Kennel Club to lead the way." The Dalmatian Club of America's (DCA) board of directors supported this decision, however it quickly became highly controversial among the club members. A vote by DCA members opposed the registration of the hybrids, causing the AKC to ban registration to any of the dog's offspring.

At the annual general meeting of the DCA in May 2006, the backcross issue was discussed again by club members. In June of the same year, DCA members were presented with an opportunity to vote on whether to reopen discussion of the Dalmatian Backcross Project. The results of this ballot were nearly 2:1 in favor of re-examining support of the project by the DCA. This has begun with publication of articles presenting more information both in support of and questioning the need for this project. In July 2011, the AKC agreed to allow registration of backcrossed Dalmatians.

In 2010, the UK Kennel Club registered a backcrossed Dalmatian called Ch. Fiacre’s First and Foremost. Several restrictions were imposed on the dog. Although the dog is at least 13 generations removed from the original Pointer cross, its F1 to F3 progeny will be marked on registration certificates with asterisks  no progeny will be eligible to be exported as pedigrees for the next five years, and all have to be health tested. UK Dalmatian breed clubs have objected to the decision by the Kennel Club.

The Dalmatian Heritage Project

The Dalmatian Heritage Project began in 2005. The goal of the project is to preserve and improve the Dalmatian breed by breeding parent dogs with the following traits:

·         Normal urinary metabolism
·         Bilateral hearing
·         Friendly and confident
All puppies in the Heritage Project are descendants of Dr. Robert Schaible's parent line. Today, "Dr. Schaible’s line produces the only Dalmatians in the world today that are free of a metabolic defect that can lead to urinary tract problems."

Dachshund


Dachshund-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The dachshund  (English badger dog) is a short-legged, long-bodied, hound-type dog breed.

The standard size dachshund was developed to scent, chase, and flush out badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the miniature dachshund was bred to hunt smaller prey such as rabbits. In the United States, they have also been used to track wounded deer and hunt prairie dogs.

Dachshunds also participate in conformation shows, field trials and many other events organized through pure-bred dog organizations such as the American Kennel Club (AKC). According to the AKC, the dachshund is ranked in 13th place in popularity amongst dog breeds in the United States.

Etymology

The name "dachshund" is of German origin and literally means "badger dog," from Dachs .
Because of their long, narrow build, they are often nicknamed wiener dog or sausage dog. "Dachshund" may be erroneously pronounced and/or spelled "dash hound," "dash-hound," or "dashound" by some English speakers.

Classification

While classified in the hound group or scent hound group in the United States and Great Britain, the breed actually has its own group in the countries which belong to the Fédération Cynologique Internationale . Many dachshunds, especially the wire-haired subtype, may exhibit behavior and appearance that are similar to that of the terrier group of dogs. An argument can be made for the scent (or hound) group classification because the breed was developed to use scent to trail and hunt animals, and probably descended from the Saint Hubert Hound like many modern scent hound breed such as bloodhounds and Basset Hounds; but with the persistent personality and love for digging that probably developed from the terrier, it can also be argued that they could belong in the terrier, or "earth dog", group.

Characteristics

Appearance

A typical dachshund is long-bodied and muscular with short, stubby legs. Its front paws are unusually large and paddle-shaped for extreme digging. It has skin that is loose enough not to tear while tunneling in tight burrows to chase prey. The dachshund has a deep chest that provides increased lung capacity for stamina when hunting prey underground. Its snout is long with an increased nose area that absorbs odors. In as much as the Dachshund is a hunting dog, scars from honorable wounds shall not be considered a fault.

Coat and color

There are three dachshund coat varieties: smooth coat (short hair), longhaired, and wirehaired. Longhaired dachshunds have a silky coat and short featherings on legs and ears. Wirehaired dachshunds are the least common coat variety in the US (it is the most common in Germany) and the most recent coat to appear in breeding standards. Dachshunds have a wide variety of colors and patterns, the most common one being red. Their base coloration can be single-colored (either red or cream), tan pointed (black and tan, chocolate and tan, blue and tan, or Isabella and tan), and in wirehaired dogs, a color referred to as wildboar. Patterns such as dapple (merle), sable, brindle and piebald also can occur on any of the base colors. Dachshunds in the same litter may be born in different coat colors depending on the genetic makeup of the parents. The dominant color in the breed is red, followed by black and tan. Tan pointed dogs have tan (or cream) markings over the eyes, ears, paws, and tail. The reds range from coppers to deep rusts, with or without somewhat common black hairs peppered along the back, face and ear edges, lending much character and an almost burnished appearance; this is referred to among breeders and enthusiasts as an "overlay" or "sabling". Sabling should not be confused with a more unusual coat color referred to as sable. At a distance, a sable dachshund looks somewhat like a black and tan dog. Upon closer examination, however, one can observe that along the top of the dog's body, each hair is actually banded with red at the base near the skin transitioning to mostly black along the length of the strand. An additional striking coat marking is the brindle pattern. "Brindle" refers to dark stripes over a solid background—usually red. If a dachshund is brindled on a dark coat and has tan points, it will have brindling on the tan points only. Even one single, lone stripe of brindle is a brindle. If a dachshund has one single spot of dapple, it is a dapple.

The Dachshund Club of America (DCA) and the American Kennel Club (AKC) consider both the piebald pattern and the double dapple (double merle) pattern to be nonstandard. However, both types continue to be shown and sometimes even win in the conformation ring.

Dogs that are double-dappled have the merle pattern of a dapple, but with distinct white patches that occur when the dapple gene expresses itself twice in the same area of the coat. The DCA excluded the wording "double-dapple" from the standard in 2007 and now strictly use the wording "dapple" as the double dapple gene is commonly responsible for blindness and deafness.

Size

Dachshunds come in three sizes: standard, miniature, and kaninchen . Although the standard and miniature sizes are recognized almost universally, the rabbit size is not recognized by clubs in the United States and the United Kingdom. The rabbit size is recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (World Canine Federation) (FCI), which contain kennel clubs from 83 countries all over the world. An increasingly common size for family pets falls between the miniature and the standard size, frequently referred to as "tweenies," not an official classification.

A full-grown standard dachshund averages 16 lb (7.3 kg) to 32 lb (15 kg), while the miniature variety normally weighs less than 12 lb (5.4 kg). The kaninchen weighs 8 lb (3.6 kg) to 11 lb (5.0 kg). According to kennel club standards, the miniature (and kaninchen, where recognized) differs from the full-size only by size and weight, thus offspring from miniature parents must never weigh more than the miniature standard to be considered a miniature as well. While many kennel club size divisions use weight for classification, such as the American Kennel Club, other kennel club standards determine the difference between the miniature and standard by chest circumference; some kennel clubs, such as in Germany, even measure chest circumference in addition to height and weight.

H. L. Mencken said that "A dachshund is a half-dog high and a dog-and-a-half long," although they have been referred to as "two dogs long". This characteristic has led them to be quite a recognizable breed, and they are featured in many a joke and cartoon, particularly The Far Side by Gary Larson.

Eye color

Light-colored dachshunds can sport amber, light brown, or green eyes; however, kennel club standards state that the darker the eye color, the better. They can also have eyes of two different colors; however, this is only found in dapple and double dapple dachshunds. Dachshunds can have a blue and a brown eye. Blue eyes, partially blue eyes, or a blue eye and a brown eye are called "wall" coloring, and are considered a non-desirable trait in kennel club standards. Dappled eyes are also possible.

Wall-eye is permissible according to DCA standards. Piebald-patterned dachshunds will never have blue in their eyes, unless the dapple pattern is present.

Temperament

Dachshunds are playful, but as hunting dogs can be quite stubborn, and are known for their propensity for chasing small animals, birds, and tennis balls with great determination and ferocity. Many dachshunds are stubborn, making them a challenge to train.

Being the owner of dachshunds, to me a book on dog discipline becomes a volume of inspired humor. Every sentence is a riot. Some day, if I ever get a chance, I shall write a book, or warning, on the character and temperament of the dachshund and why he can't be trained and shouldn't be. I would rather train a striped zebra to balance an Indian club than induce a dachshund to heed my slightest command. When I address Fred I never have to raise either my voice or my hopes. He even disobeys me when I instruct him in something he wants to do.

— E. B. White

Dachshunds are statistically more aggressive to both strangers and other dogs. Despite this, they are rated in the intelligence of dogs as an average working dog with a persistent ability to follow trained commands 50% of the time or more. They rank 49th in Stanley Coren's Intelligence of Dogs, being of average working and obedience intelligence. They can have a loud bark. Some bark quite a lot and may need training to stop, while others will not bark much at all. Dachshunds are known for their devotion and loyalty to their owners, though they can be standoffish towards strangers. If left alone, many dachshunds will whine until they have companionship. Like many dogs if left alone too frequently, some dachshunds are prone to separation anxiety and may chew objects in the house to relieve stress.

Dachshunds are burrowers by nature and are likely to burrow in blankets and other items around the house, when bored or tired.


Dachshunds can be difficult to housebreak, and patience and consistency is often needed in this endeavor.

According to the American Kennel Club's breed standards, "the dachshund is clever, lively and courageous to the point of rashness, persevering in above and below ground work, with all the senses well-developed. Any display of shyness is a serious fault." Their temperament and body language give the impression that they do not know or care about their relatively small size. Like many small hunting dogs, they will challenge a larger dog. Indulged dachshunds may become snappy or extremely obstinate.

Many dachshunds do not like unfamiliar people, and many will growl or bark at them. Although the dachshund is generally an energetic dog, some are sedate. This dog's behavior is such that it is not the dog for everyone. A bored, untrained dachshund will become destructive. If raised improperly and not socialized at a young age, dachshunds can become aggressive or fearful.They require a caring, loving owner who understands their need for entertainment and exercise.

Dachshunds may not be the best pets for small children. Like any dog, dachshunds need a proper introduction at a young age. Well trained dachshunds and well behaved children usually get along fine. Otherwise, they may be aggressive and bite an unfamiliar child, especially one that moves quickly around them or teases them.However, many dachshunds are very tolerant and loyal to children within their family, but these children should be mindful of the vulnerability of the breed's back.

A 2008 University of Pennsylvania study of 6,000 dog owners who were interviewed indicated that dogs of smaller breeds were more likely to be "genetically predisposed towards aggressive behaviour". Dachshunds were rated the most aggressive, with 20% having bitten strangers, as well as high rates of attacks on other dogs and their owners. The study noted that attacks by small dogs were unlikely to cause serious injuries and because of this were probably under-reported.

Health

The breed is prone to spinal problems, especially intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), due in part to an extremely long spinal column and short rib cage. The risk of injury may be worsened by obesity, jumping, rough handling, or intense exercise, which place greater strain on the vertebrae. About 20–25% of Dachshunds will develop IVDD.

Treatment consists of combinations of crate confinement and courses of anti-inflammatory medications , or chronic pain medications, like tramadol. Serious cases may require surgery to remove the troublesome disk contents. A dog may need the aid of a cart to get around if paralysis occurs.

A new minimally invasive procedure called "percutaneous laser disk ablation" has been developed at the Oklahoma State University Veterinary Hospital. Originally, the procedure was used in clinical trials only on dachshunds that had suffered previous back incidents. Since dachshunds are prone to back issues, the goal is to expand this treatment to dogs in a normal population.

In addition to back problems, the breed is also prone to patellar luxation which is where the kneecap can become dislodged. Dachshunds may also be affected by Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease). The condition seems to be mainly limited to wire-haired Dachshunds, with 17% being carriers. A genetic test is available to allow breeders to avoid breeding carriers to carriers. In such pairings, each puppy will have a 25% chance of being affected.

In some double dapples, there are varying degrees of vision and hearing loss, including reduced or absent eyes. Not all double dapples have problems with their eyes and/or ears, which may include degrees of hearing loss, full deafness, malformed ears, congenital eye defects, reduced or absent eyes, partial or full blindness, or varying degrees of both vision and hearing problems; but heightened problems can occur due to the genetic process in which two dapple genes cross, particularly in certain breeding lines. Dapple genes, which are dominant genes, are considered "dilution" genes, meaning whatever color the dog would have originally carried is lightened, or diluted, randomly; two dominant "dilution" genes can cancel each other out, or "cross", removing all color and producing a white recessive gene, essentially a white mutation. When occurring genetically within the eyes or ears, this white mutation can be detrimental to development, causing hearing or vision problems.

Other dachshund health problems include hereditary epilepsy, granulomatous meningoencephalitis, dental issues, Cushing's syndrome, thyroid and autoimmune problems, various allergies and atopies, and various eye conditions including cataracts, glaucoma, progressive retinal atrophy, corneal ulcers, nonucerative corneal disease, sudden acquired retinal degeneration, and cherry eye. Dachshunds are also 2.5 times more likely than other breeds of dogs to develop patent ductus arteriosus, a congenital heart defect. Dilute color dogs (Blue, Isabella, and Cream) are very susceptible to Color Dilution Alopecia, a skin disorder that can result in hair loss and extreme sensitivity to sun. Since the occurrence and severity of these health problems is largely hereditary, breeders are working to eliminate these.

Inbreeding depression

Factors influencing the litter size of puppies and the proportion of stillborn puppies per litter were analyzed in normally sized German dachshunds. The records analyzed contained data on 42,855 litters. It was found that as the inbreeding coefficient increased, litter size decreased and the percentage of stillborn puppies increased, thus indicating inbreeding depression. It was also found that young and older dams had smaller litter sizes and more stillborn puppies than middle-aged dams.

Czechoslovakian Wolfdog


 Czechoslovakian Wolfdog-pets-dogs-dog breeds-pet

The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is a relatively new dog breed that traces its original lineage to an experiment conducted in 1955 in Czechoslovakia. After initially breeding working line German Shepherd Dogs with Carpathian wolves (Canis lupus lupus), a plan was worked out to create a breed that would have the temperament, pack mentality, and trainability of the German Shepherd Dog and the strength, physical build, and stamina of the Carpathian wolf.

The breed was engineered as attack dogs for use in military special operations done by the Czechoslovak special forces commandos but were later also used in search and rescue, schutzhund, tracking, herding, agility, obedience, hunting, and drafting in Europe and the United States. It was officially recognized as a national breed in Czechoslovakia in 1982, and was officially recognized as a breed by Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) in 1989.

2017 Italian Ave Lupo operation

In January 2017, 229 Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs were sequestered by the Environmental Protection Unit of the Carabinieri following a nationwide investigation. The investigation started in 2013 and it was taken over in 54 Italian provinces and was stating that Italian breeders were crossing the Czechoslovakian dog-wolves with wild wolves from the Carpathian Mountains, Scandinavia and even from North America. Following this crossing, the newborns were considered to have a stronger bone structure and a more similar aspect to the wild wolves allowing the same breeders to improve their performances at expositions. Because of this, puppies were sold on an average price of €5,000. The operation was part of a major international operation that was investigating on the illegal traffic of wild wolves in different European countries.

DNA analysis

In 2015, a DNA study of the breed compared to German Shepherds and Carpathian wolves found only two maternal mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and two paternal Y DNA haplotypes within the breed. The two mDNA haplotypes and one yDNA haplotype originated with German Shepherds and was the result of back-crossing. The other yDNA haplotype was unique to the breed. All four haplotypes were distinct from those of the parental populations.

Appearance

Both the build and the haircoat of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog are reminiscent of a wolf. The lowest dewlap height is 65 cm (26 in) for a male and 60 cm (24 in) for a female, and there is no upper limit. The body frame is rectangular, with the ratio of the height to length being 9:10 or less. The minimum weight is 26 kg (57 lb) for males and 20 kg (44 lb) for females. The expression of the head must indicate the sex. Amber eyes set obliquely and short upright ears in a triangular shape are its characteristic features. The set of teeth is complete (42) and very strong; both scissors-shaped and pliers-shaped dentition are acceptable. The spine is straight, strong in movement, with a short loin. The chest is large and flat rather than barrel-shaped. The belly is strong and drawn in. The back is short and slightly sloped; the tail is high set, and when freely lowered reaches the tarsi. The forelimbs are straight and narrow-set, with the paws slightly turned out, with a long radius and metacarpus. The hind limbs are muscular, with a long calf and instep.

The coat color is yellow-grey to silver-grey, with a light mask. The hair is straight, close, and very thick. The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is a typical tenacious canterer; its movement is light and harmonious, and its stride is long.

Temperament

The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is more versatile than specialized. It is quick, lively, very active, and courageous. Distinct from the character of the Saarloos Wolfhound, shyness is a disqualifying fault in the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog.

The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog develops a very strong social relationship - not only with their owner, but with the whole family. It can easily learn to live with other domestic animals which belong to the family; however, difficulties can occur in encounters with strange animals. It is vital to subdue the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog's passion for hunting when they are puppies to avoid aggressive behavior towards smaller animals as an adult. The puppy should never be isolated in the kennel; it must be socialized and get used to different surroundings. Female Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs tend to be more easily controllable, but both genders often experience a stormy adolescence.

The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is very playful, temperamental, and learns easily. However, it does not train spontaneously, the behavior of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is strictly purposeful - it is necessary to find motivation for training. The most frequent cause of failure is usually the fact that the dog is tired out with long useless repetitions of the same exercise, which results in the loss of motivation. These dogs have admirable senses and are very good at following trails. They are very independent and can cooperate in the pack with a special purposefulness. If required, they can easily shift their activity to the night hours. Sometimes problems can occur during their training when barking is required. Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs have a much wider range of means of expressing themselves and barking is unnatural for them; they try to communicate with their masters in other ways (mainly through body language, but also with quiet noises such as growls, grunts, and whining). Generally, teaching the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog stable and reliable performance takes a bit longer than teaching traditional specialized breeds. The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog has been successfully employed as a Search And Rescue (SAR) dog in Italy, although, admittedly, handling one requires much more work than other breeds.

Cursinu(dog)


 Cursinu-pets-dog-dogs-pet-dog breeds

The Cursinu, is a breed of dog originating from Corsica. It has existed on the island since the 16th century, but went into decline during the late 20th century; however it was saved and became recognized by the Société Centrale Canine. Used for a variety of working purposes, it has no specific health issues.

Description

The breed measures 46–58 centimetres (18–23 in) at the withers with male dogs being slightly larger than females. Their coat can be fringed, with usual colors being fawn, black and tan or brown. The presence of a melanistic mask is permitted under the breed standard. White markings can be on the chest or the legs. The skin of the dog adheres closely to the body, and dewlaps do not appear in the breed.

Temperament

The Cursinu is docile, loyal and very attached to its owner. It is wary of strangers. It's an intelligent, calm and stable dog capable of adapting itself to many situations. Calm at home, it explodes with energy and speed when in action.

Use

It is a versatile breed, having been used as a sheepdog, as well as to herd cattle and in some instances for dog fighting. In hunting it is most often used in hunting Wild boar, but has been used for fox and hare. It is still used as a herding dog, a watchdog and for companionship. It can require further training than some other breeds, but can become a pleasant companion to its owner.

Health

There are no breed specific health issues.

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