American Staffordshire Terrier

American Staffordshire Terrier-pets-dog-dog breeds

The American Staffordshire Terrier, also known as Amstaff (in the United States), is a medium-sized, short-coated American dog breed. It is one of several breeds commonly known as pit bulls. In the early part of the twentieth century the breed gained social stature and was accepted by the American Kennel Club in 1936. The name was changed to reflect difference from the Staffordshire Bull Terrier of England.

Temperament

According to the American Kennel Club "The Am Staff is a people-oriented dog that thrives when he is made part of the family and given a job to do. Although friendly, this breed is loyal to his own family."

Health

The American Staffordshire Terrier should give the impression of great strength for his size, a well put-together dog, muscular, but agile and graceful, keenly alive to his surroundings. He should be stocky, not long-legged or racy in outline. Height and weight should be in proportion. A height of about 18 to 19 inches (46 to 48 cm) at shoulders for the male and 17 to 18 inches (43 to 46 cm) for the female is to be considered preferable.

American Staffordshire Terrier pups should not be bought weaned before they are 8–10 weeks old. Their life expectancy is generally 12 years with good care. The breed may be vulnerable to skin allergies, urinary tract infections (UTI), and autoimmune diseases. Spondylosis and osteoarthritis are common in older dogs.

Notable issues related to health and-well being include:
·         Congenital heart disease
·         Elbow dysplasia
·         Hip dysplasia
·         Luxating patella
·         Thyroid dysfunction
·         Cerebellar ataxia

Breed-specific legislation

Worldwide, the American Staffordshire Terrier has been subject to breed bans that target the Bull and Terrier family in response to well-publicized incidents involving pit bulls or similar dog breeds. This legislation ranges from outright bans on possession to restrictions and conditions of ownership.The appropriateness and effectiveness of breed-specific legislation in preventing dog-related fatalities and injuries is disputed.

American Pit Bull Terrier

American Pit Bull Terrier-dog-pets-dog breeds

The American Pit Bull Terrier (APBT) is a dog breed. It is a medium-sized, solidly-built, intelligent, short-haired dog whose early ancestors came from the British Isles. When compared with the English Staffordshire Bull Terrier (another breed within the type commonly called pit bulls), the American Pit Bull Terrier is larger by margins of 6–8 inches (15–20 cm) in height and 25–35 pounds (11–16 kg) in weight. The American Pit Bull Terrier varies in size. Males normally are about 18-21 inches (45–53 cm) in height and around 35-60 pounds (15–27 kg) in weight. Females are normally around 17-20 inches (43–50 cm) in height and 30-50 pounds (13–22 kg) in weight.

The American Pit Bull is medium-sized, and has a short coat and smooth well-defined muscle structure. Its eyes are round to almond-shaped, and its ears are small to medium in length, typically half prick or rose in carriage. The tail is slightly thick and tapers to a point. The coat is glossy, smooth, short, and stiff to the touch. Any color, color pattern, or combination of colors is acceptable, both the ADBA and UKC do not recognize merle coloring. Color patterns that are typical in the breed are spotted, brindled, solid, and with points.

Twelve countries in Europe, as well as Australia, Canada, Ecuador, Malaysia, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Singapore, and Venezuela have enacted some form of breed-specific legislation on pit bull-type dogs, including American Pit Bull Terriers, ranging from outright bans to restrictions and conditions on ownership. The state of New South Wales in Australia places restrictions on the breed, including mandatory sterilization. The breed is banned in the United Kingdom, in the Canadian province of Ontario, and in many locations in the United States.

Temperament

The UKC gives this description of the characteristics of the American Pit Bull Terrier:

The essential characteristics of the American Pit Bull Terrier are strength, confidence, and zest for life. This breed is eager to please and brimming over with enthusiasm. APBTs make excellent family companions and have always been noted for their love of children. Because most APBTs exhibit some level of dog aggression and because of its powerful physique, the APBT requires an owner who will carefully socialize and obedience train the dog. The breed’s natural agility makes it one of the most capable canine climbers so good fencing is a must for this breed. The APBT is not the best choice for a guard dog since they are extremely friendly, even with strangers. Aggressive behavior toward humans is uncharacteristic of the breed and highly undesirable. This breed does very well in performance events because of its high level of intelligence and its willingness to work.

The standard imposed by the ADBA considers the human aggression as disqualification factor. The APDR (American Preservation Dog Registry) standard points out that "the temperament MUST be totally reliable with people". However, in all the standards it is mentioned that dog/animal aggression is common to the breed.

The ATTS (American Temperament Test Society) conducts temperament testing since 1977 with several dog breeds, and until now has tested more than 900 APBTs. According to the tests conducted by ATTS the APBTs had one of the highest percentages of approval.

In September 2000, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a study which examined dog bite-related fatalities (human death caused by dog bite injuries) in order to "summarize breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks during a 20-year period and to assess policy implications."

The study examined 238 fatalities between 1979 and 1998 in which the breed of dog was known. It found that "the data indicates that Rottweilers and pit bull-type dogs accounted for 67% of human DBRF [dog bite-related fatality] in the United States between 1997 and 1998" and that it was "extremely unlikely that they accounted for anywhere near 60% of dogs in the United States during that same period and, thus, there appears to be a breed-specific problem with fatalities."

However, the article continued, saying that care should be taken in drawing conclusions based on these data because:

·         first, the study likely covered only about 74% of actual DBRF cases;
·         second, records of DBRF may have been biased by the propensity of media to report attacks by certain breeds over others;
·         third, it is not always straightforward to identify a dog's breed, and records may be biased towards reporting 'known' aggressive breeds; and
·         fourth, it was not clear how to count mixed breeds.
·         fifth, such breeds have traditionally been used in dog fighting at a far higher percentage than others. Thus, the disparity of docility versus aggressiveness tends to rank very highly in Rottweilers and pit bull-type dogs when compared to other breeds, with human training playing the primary role.

The authors concluded by noting that "breeds responsible for human DBRF have varied over time" (for example, Great Danes caused the most reported DBRF between 1979 and 1980). In the face of this inconclusive data, the study authors recommended that breed should not be the "primary factor driving public policy", instead making the following policy recommendations: "adequate funding for animal control agencies, enforcement of existing animal control laws, and educational and policy strategies to reduce inappropriate dog and owner behaviors" as likely to be beneficial and specifically to decrease the occurrence of dog bites.

In a peer-reviewed literature review of 66 dog bite risk studies, the American Veterinary Medical Association determined that "breed is a poor sole predictor of dog bites. Controlled studies reveal no increased risk for the group blamed most often for dog bites, ‘pit bull-type’ dogs. Accordingly, targeting this breed or any another as a basis for dog-bite prevention is unfounded. As stated by the National Animal Control Association: "Dangerous and/or vicious animals should be labeled as such as a result of their actions or behavior and not because of their breed."

In 2014, new statistical evidence emerged regarding the province-wide ban on "pit bulls", more specifically the American Pit Bull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier, in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was reported to show that since the ban had been implemented, dog bites involving the two breeds and dogs of their likeness had dropped considerably in the province's largest city Toronto, yet overall dog bites hit their highest levels this century in 2013 and 2014.

Health

The breed tends to have a higher than average incidence of hip dysplasia. Culling for performance has helped eliminate this problem and others such as patella problems, thyroid dysfunction and congenital heart defects. American Pit Bull Terriers with dilute coat colors have not had a higher occurrence of skin allergies as other breeds. As a breed they are more susceptible to parvovirus than others if not vaccinated, especially as puppies, so vaccination is imperative beginning at 39 days old and continuing every 2 weeks until 4 months old. Then again at 8 months. Once a year after that, as recommend for all breeds.

They are very prone to Demodex Mange due to culling for performance. There are two different types of Demodex Mange, namely Localized and Generalized Demodex. Although it is not contagious it is sometimes difficult to treat due to immunodeficiency in some puppies. The Localized symptoms are usually loss of hair in small patches on the head and feet of the puppies. This type will usually heal as the puppies grow and their immune systems grow stronger. The second type which is Generalized Demodex mange is a more severe form of the sickness. The symptoms are more severe and include loss of hair throughout the entire body and the skin may also be scabby and bloody. Generalized are usually hereditary due to immunodeficiency genes that are passed on from Sire and Dam to their puppies. A simple skin scraping test will allow the vet to diagnose demodex mange. The most widely used method to treat Demodex Mange is ivermectin injections or oral medications. Since Demodex Mange lives in the hair follicles of the dog, Ivermectin will kill these mites at the source.

Strains
The APBT has several strains/bloodlines, many originated in dog fighting, and others developed for the conformation shows of the UKC. But at least two strains can be mentioned among some of the most important strains.

Colby pit bulls
The Colby dogs are an ancient black-nosed bloodline that served as one of the pillars of the APBT breed. Considered one of the most important strains, and one of the most famous, the Colby dogs were started by John P. Colby in 1889, who acquired the best fighting dogs (Bull and Terriers) imported from Ireland and England. One of the most famous dogs of this bloodline was Colby's Pincher. Pincher was known as an invincible fighting dog, was widely used as a stud dog and for this reason Pincher is present in pedigree of the vast majority of APBT specimens. Today, the Colby dogs strain remains preserved by the family of John P. Colby.

Old Family Red Nose
Old Family Red Nose (OFRN) is an old strain of American Pit Bull Terriers known for their specific and unique reddish coloration. A dog of the OFRN strain has a copper-red nose and coat, red lips, red toe nails, and red or amber eyes.

OFRN history

In the middle of the 19th century, there was a strain of pit dogs in Ireland that were known as "Old Family." At that time, all the bloodlines were closely inbred with each family clan. Since red is recessive to all colors but white, the strain was known as "Irish Old Family Reds." When the dogs began coming to America, they were already showing the red nose.

The "Old Family Reds" dogs found their way to America in the 19th century mainly via Irish immigrants though many in the United States did import the breed.

Many strains have been crossed with the Old Family Reds at some time in their existence. Consequently, nearly any strain will occasionally throw a red-nosed pup. This means that not every red-nose dog is an true OFRN. The Old Family Reds produced more than their share of good ones unlike other strains are known. Old Family Reds were sought after for their high percentage in ability to produce deep gameness. The strain in its purest form continues to be preserved by remaining breeders specializing in this bloodline.

Renowned for its gameness, it continues to be bred to maintain its unique reddish color and genetic. Some of the most reputable breeders in all Pit Bull history such as Lightner, McClintock, Hemphill, Williams, Menefee, Norrod and Wallace have contributed to the preservation and development of the strain. Finally, as McNolty said in his 30-30 Journal (1967) "Regardless of one's historical perspective, these old amber-eyed, red-nosed, red-toe-nailed, red-coated dogs represent some of the most significant pit bull history and tradition that stands on four legs today."

Activities

American Pit Bull Terriers excel in many dog sports, including weight pulling, dog agility, flyball, lure coursing, and advanced obedience competition. Out of the 115 dogs who have earned UKC "superdog" status (by gaining championship titles in conformation, obedience, agility, and weightpull), 34 have been American Pit Bull Terriers, and another 13 were American Staffordshire Terriers.

The American Pit Bull Terrier is a working dog, and is suitable for a wide range of working disciplines due to their intelligence, high energy, and endurance. In the United States they have been used as search and rescue dogs, police dogs performing narcotics and explosives detection, Border Patrol dogs, hearing dogs to provide services to the deaf, as well as general service dogs. In the South they are often a favorite dog for catching feral pigs.

Law

Australia, Ecuador, Malaysia, New Zealand, the territory of Puerto Rico, Singapore, Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago Denmark, Israel, France, Germany, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Switzerland have enacted some form of breed-specific legislation on pit bull-type dogs, including American Pit Bull Terriers, ranging from outright bans to restrictions on import and conditions on ownership. The state of New South Wales in Australia places restrictions on the breed, including mandatory sterilization.

Certain counties and cities in the United States have banned ownership of the American Pit Bull Terrier, as well as the province of Ontario in Canada. American Pit Bull Terriers are also on a list of four breeds that are banned in the UK.

American Hairless Terrier

American Hairless Terrier-pets-dog-dogs breeds

The American Hairless Terrier is a rare breed of dog that was derived as a variant of Rat Terrier. As of January 1, 2004, the United Kennel Club deemed the AHT a separate terrier breed, granting it full UKC recognition. An intelligent, social and energetic working breed, the American Hairless Terrier is often listed as a potential good breed choice for allergy sufferers.

Description

The American Hairless Terrier is a smoothly muscled, active, small-to-medium terrier.

Height: 7-18 inches (18–45.7 cm.)
Life Span: 14–16 years.
Weight: 7-25 pounds (2.5–12 kg.)
Skin Color: White (to varying degrees) with a variety of colors including black, blue, pink, brown, tan, and sable. Skin color darkens with sun
Eye Color: Brown, blue, grey, amber and turquoise
Pattern: near-solid (with some white), brindled, spotted (piebald) and saddled
Tail/Ears: Tails must be left long on the hairless variety, coateds may be docked or left undocked
Type: Working Breed

American Hairless Terrier and Rat Terrier distinctions

The American Hairless Terrier's origins are unique in that the entire breed originated from a single hairless Rat Terrier female born in 1972. The AHT is therefore very similar to the Rat Terrier and the coated AHT is almost indistinguishable from its Rat Terrier cousin.

However, since the first litter born in 1982 from the originating hairless female, the AHT has continued to be developed as a distinct breed (see "Breed Recognition") with several characteristics that distinguish the AHT from its Rat Terrier origins. These differences include smaller sizes, more refined features, new eye colors, new patterns, new (skin) colors and, of course, a complete lack of fur on the hairless variety.

Other breeder choices have further differentiated the AHT. AHT breeders and clubs promote the undocked tail appearance on hairless, unlike the more traditionally docked appearance of the Rat Terrier. To date, the hairless trait has not been bred over to the other types of Rat Terrier such as the Decker Giant Terrier or the Type B Rat Terrier (also known as the Teddy Roosevelt Terrier).

Hairless breeds and genetics

While there are unproven theories that other hairless dog breeds have common ancestry, the recent evolution of the American Hairless Terrier demonstrates an independent evolution from other hairless breeds.

A key difference found between the American Hairless Terrier and other Hairless Dog breeds is that the AHT's hairless gene is recessive, while the gene for hairlessness found in the ancient breeds is a lethal dominant.

The American Hairless Terrier does not have dental issues (absent premolars) or other characteristics associated with the dominant hairless gene.

For dogs where hairlessness is a dominant gene, hairless to hairless matings will on average produce 66.6% hairless and 33.3% coated live puppies[citation needed]. For hairless to coated matings, there will be an average one-to-one ratio between coated and hairless offspring. In coated to coated matings, all puppies will be coated.

Matings between hairless AHTs will produce completely hairless litters. Between hairless AHT to coated AHT or Rat Terrier, results are more variable and will produce mixed hairless litters to all coated litters.

Hypoallergenic dog breed

There is no scientific evidence supporting the existence of a completely hypoallergenic dog breed and hairlessness is not the sole characteristic that will determine allergic reactions or its degree.

The American Hairless Terrier Association recommends individual allergy tests prior to adopting an AHT.

Temperament

The American Hairless Terrier (AHT) is an intelligent, curious, and energetic breed.

Graceful and elegant, the American Hairless Terrier is also strong and athletic. The AHT enjoys participating in agility games like its other terrier cousins. The AHT typically likes to dig, chase small game and will bark when alarmed and will act as a good watch dog. The AHT is not a strong swimmer and should be monitored around water.

Its ancestry gives the AHT a strong hunting instinct, but its lack of coat makes it a less likely candidate for a hunting dog as rough underbrush may hurt the AHT's unprotected skin. As a breed founded by working dogs, the prey drive is strong in many AHTs. This has led to debate among owners as to whether or not AHTs are appropriate for families with young children. Anecdotal evidence suggests that AHT's can be trained to be less aggressive to children, especially if the dog is shown that it may not dominate a child. Due to the small size of many AHTs, they can be hurt if roughly handled. Positive reward is the most effective form of training, however, some AHT require a more care-giver dominant approach to correction in giving the AHT direction.

Health

The American Hairless Terrier continues to be a rare breed with a limited breeding stock. The UKC recognizes the need to continue to breed in Rat Terrier blood lines (see "Coated American Hairless Terrier") until "breed of breeds" (also, see "Genetics" above).

Although often stated otherwise[by whom?], AHTs do not have sweat glands. However, after physical exertion or in warm temperatures, the breed exhibits dermal evidence of moisture along the spine, typically lower spine. There is no scientific evidence to suggest an independent evolution of sweat glands unique to this breed. The mis-perception has likely arisen from the presence of sebaceous glands associated with hair follicles. These are the same glands that are present in all canines. The hairless variety of this breed has the same follicles, however the "hair" is lost early on as the dog matures.

Rashes due to grass allergies are not entirely uncommon. Other allergies may occur as well, but this is no different from most other breeds of dogs. Due to their lack of hair, they may need protection from the sun (based on the season, their geographic location and the individual dog's degree of pigmentation or lack thereof). If needed, sunscreen can be applied or a light shirt may be worn. Clothing is oftentimes used, not only for the protection from the sun but from the cold as well (where the climate warrants). It is, however, important to keep the skin clean with regular, possibly daily depending on application of sunscreen or moisturizers, bathing with gentle soap to prevent infections in the skin pores (acne).

American Foxhound

American Foxhound-dog-pet-dog breeds

The American Foxhound is a breed of dog that is a cousin of the English Foxhound. They are scent hounds, bred to hunt foxes by scent.

Description

Appearance

While standards call for the American Foxhound to be about 21–25 in (53–64 cm) tall to the withers, and weigh anywhere between 55–71 lb (25–32 kg), many of them are larger in structure (especially the show strains), with males standing 26–29 in (66–74 cm) and females 25–28 in (64–71 cm) and smaller in weight, typically between 45–65 lb (20–29 kg). For years it was traditional to feed Foxhounds on a diet of "dog bread", a variation on cornbread. The legs of a Foxhound are very long and straight-boned. The foxhound's chest is rather narrow. It has a long muzzle, and a large, domed skull. The ears are wide and low-set. The eyes are hazel or brown, and are large and wide-set.

Coat

A close, hard hound coat of medium length, and any color, though the combination of black, white and tan is prevalent. American Foxhounds do tend to shed a good amount of hair, but a weekly brushing will decrease shedding.

Defining physical characteristics

The American Foxhound is taller and rangier than its cousin, the English Foxhound. Also, this breed is known to have a musical bark, called a bay, when it is hunting that can be heard for miles, probably inherited from the Grand Bleu de Gascogne's signature howl. If competing in a dog show, some physical characteristics that judges would look for would be a slightly domed skull, long, large ears, large eyes, straight muzzle, well laid-back shoulders, a moderately long back, fox-like feet, and a slightly curved tail. Though they are traditionally tri-colored (black, white and tan) they can be any color. They are one of the rarest breeds in the American Kennel Club.

Behavior

Temperament

The American Foxhound has a very docile and sweet demeanor. A typical dog is gentle, easygoing, and gets along with children and other animals. However, they may act shy and reserved when around strangers.

Activity level

The American Foxhound is a very active breed and very high energy. They require a lot of exercise and do best in habitats where they have room to run. If they live in a suburban area such as a neighborhood, they should have a fenced in yard and be taken on multiple walks daily.

Trainability

Obedience training is essential for this breed due to their independence and natural instinct to follow a scent. A Foxhound who picks up a scent will follow it while ignoring commands; training requires patience and skill because of the breed's independence and occasional stubbornness. Because of its strong hunting instinct, American Foxhounds should not be trusted off-leash. Most scent hounds are bred to give "voice," but the Foxhound does not make a good watchdog.

Health

This breed is not generally a breed that carries genetic disorders. However they can easily become overweight when overfed. A minor health risk in American Foxhounds is thrombocytopathy, or platelet disease. This comes from poorly functioning blood platelets and can result in excessive bleeding from minor bumps or cuts. The treatment is usually based on the severity of the disease. Owners will often have their American Foxhounds undergo blood tests so that the condition can be caught early on. While dysplasia was largely unknown in Foxhounds, it is beginning to crop up occasionally, along with some eye issues. It is not typical or customary for Foxhound breeders to screen for any hereditary disorders at this time. The breed's lifespan is generally 10–12 years. The American Foxhound is an energetic breed. According to some veterinarians and trainers, it needs plenty of exercise, for example, a fairly long walk followed by a game of fetch.

American Eskimo Dog

American Eskimo Dog-dog-pet-dog breeds

The American Eskimo Dog is a breed of companion dog, originating in Germany. The American Eskimo is a member of the Spitz family. The breed's progenitors were German Spitz, but due to anti-German prejudice during the First World War, it was renamed "American Eskimo Dog". Although modern American Eskimos have been exported as German Spitz Gross (or Mittel, depending on the dog's height), the breeds have diverged and the standards are significantly different. In addition to serving as a watchdog and companion, the American Eskimo Dog also achieved a high degree of popularity in the United States in the 1930s and 1940s as a circus performer.

There are three size varieties of the American Eskimo breed, the toy, the miniature and the standard. They share a common resemblance with Japanese Spitz, Danish Spitz, Volpino Italiano, German Spitz and Samoyed.

Health

The American Eskimo is a hardy breed with an average life span of 12–15 years. This breed tends to become overweight easily, so proper diet and exercise is needed to maintain an overall well being. Health testing should be performed by all responsible breeders and anyone purchasing a puppy should be aware of the genetic problems which have been found in some individuals of the breed, such as PRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy), luxating patella, and hip dysplasia). None of these problems are common and the breed is generally very healthy. In addition to the rarer problems mentioned, the breed can have a tendency towards allergies and most commonly, tear-staining. This breed also is known in some cases to have dental issues.


Temperament

The American Eskimo is an affectionate, loving dog. The breed is easy to train and they are excellent with children because of the dog's high intelligence and its willingness to please. American Eskimos often rank among the top scorers in obedience trials. They like to work. Naturally wary of strangers, once properly introduced, they become friends. American Eskimos are highly intelligent, inquisitive and love to investigate. Without enough mental and physical exercise, they can become hyperactive and high-strung, spinning in circles. They are not always recommended for first-time dog owners.

The American Kennel Club standard states:

The American Eskimo Dog is intelligent, alert, and friendly, although slightly conservative. It is never overly shy nor aggressive, and such dogs are to be severely penalized in the show ring. At home it is an excellent watchdog, sounding a warning bark to announce the arrival of any stranger. It is protective of its home and family, although it does not threaten to bite or attack people. The American Eskimo Dog learns new tasks quickly and is eager to please.

Sizes

American Eskimo Dogs come in three size varieties:

Toy: 9–12 inches and 6–10 lbs / 22–30 cm and 3–5 kg

Miniature: 12–15 inches and 10–17 lbs / 30–40 cm and 5–8 kg

Standard: 15–20 inches and 18–35 lbs / 40–50 cm and 8–16 kg


Although weight is not specified by the breed standard, toy dogs usually range from 6-11 lbs, miniature dogs from 10-21 lbs, and standard-sized dogs from 19-40 lbs. Some overlap in weight ranges occurs because the size category that an American Eskimo Dog falls into is set by its height at the withers, and not its weight.

American English Coonhound

American English Coonhound-pet-dog-dog breeds

The English Coonhound, also referred to as the American English Coonhound (by the American Kennel Club only) or the Redtick Coonhound, is a breed of coonhound that originated and is typically bred in the Southern United States. It is descended from hunting hounds brought to America by settlers during the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in the dogs known as the "Virginia Hounds". The breed's first recognition came from the United Kennel Club in 1905 as the English Fox and Coonhound. Further recognition has been granted in recent years by the American Kennel Club, first in the Foundation Stock Service and in 2011 as a fully recognized member of the hound group.

The breed is of medium height and proportionate weight, and their coats come predominantly in three types, redtick, bluetick and a tricolor tick pattern. They have a high prey drive and are used in various roles in hunting, primarily coon hunting but any sport including treeing. Health issues that the breed suffers from include overheating while out on summer hunting expeditions.

Description

Male English Coonhounds measure between 22–27 inches (56–69 cm) at the withers, with females being slightly smaller at 21–25 inches (53–64 cm). The weight of a Coonhound should be in proportion to the dog's height. Their coats come in three distinct colors and patterns. The most common is the "redtick" pattern (like the dog pictured above), while others include tricolor markings with ticks, and a "bluetick" pattern. Members of the breed in the bluetick pattern can be confused with Bluetick Coonhounds. The coat itself is short to medium in length and hard to the touch.

Unlike the other breeds of coonhounds, a variety of colorations is acceptable to meet English Coonhound breed standards. Coloration can be redtick, bluetick, tricolored and tricolored with ticking. However, red markings are predominant and "Redtick" is a common euphemism for English Coonhounds. Some people believe this lack of emphasis on specific coloration has allowed breeders to focus breeding programs on traits such as intelligence and hunting ability rather than superficial concerns like coat standards. Color variations are common even amongst pups from the same litter of English Coonhounds, indicating high levels of DNA diversity in the breed.

Temperament

English Coonhounds tend to be quiet in the house, and require regular exercise to keep in prime condition. English Coonhounds love to nest and usually make good house pets. They have a high prey drive, and will go after small animals unless trained otherwise. Because of this, they are not usually recommended for households with small pets unless they have been raised around small animals. They are generally good with children and tend to be very loyal dogs that feel the need to please their owners. Like most puppies they can be quite inquisitive and destructive therefore needed training early on is highly recommended.

Like all coonhounds, English are generally good natured and very sociable dogs. Skittishness or aggression is considered a defect according to UKC breed standards. They are strong willed, if not stubborn, and require more patience in training than other breeds. Young dogs are usually extremely active and playful and desirous of human attention in addition to requiring plenty of exercise. English Coonhounds are incessant nesters and should be avoided by people who do not wish to have dogs on couches and beds. They make excellent family pets as they have been bred for hunting purposes to coexist amiably within a pack. English Coonhounds also make adequate watch dogs as they possess extremely loud hound mouths characterized by melodious, drawn out bawls and short, explosive chops.

Hunting

The breed has proven popular with coon hunters, and have a powerful nose which enables them to track of both small and large game including, raccoons, cougars and bears. One of the types of hunting that the breed is used for treeing, where the dogs are used to force animals that naturally climb up into trees, where they can be shot by hunters.

While known for their ability in this type of hunting, they can lose their ability to pace themselves and on occasion can stand their ground when they believe that they have chased their prey up a tree, even if they haven't. They can have a one track mind while hunting, and tune everything else out. Against cougars and bears they can keep the larger game in position while the hunters arrive. They have become a favored breed in coon hunting. They have a tendency to bark when caged.

Health

English Coonhounds can be prone to overheating while on coon hunts during the summer months in the Southern United States.

American Cocker Spaniel

American Cocker Spaniel-dog-pet-dog breeds

The American Cocker Spaniel is a breed of sporting dog. It is a spaniel type dog that is closely related to the English Cocker Spaniel; the two breeds diverged during the 20th century due to differing breed standards in America and the UK. In the United States, the breed is usually called the Cocker Spaniel, while elsewhere in the world, it is called the American Cocker Spaniel in order to differentiate between it and its English cousin, which was already known as "Cocker Spaniel" before the American variety was created. The word cocker is commonly held to stem from their use to hunt woodcock in England, while spaniel is thought to be derived from the type's origins in Spain.

The first spaniel in America came across with the Mayflower in 1620, but it was not until 1878 that the first Cocker Spaniel was registered with the American Kennel Club (AKC). A national breed club was set up three years later and the dog considered to be the father of the modern breed, Ch. Obo II, was born around this time. By the 1920s the English and American varieties of Cocker had become noticeably different and in 1946 the AKC recognised the English type as a separate breed. It was not until 1970 that The Kennel Club in the UK recognised the American Cocker Spaniel as being separate from the English type. The American Cocker was the most popular breed in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s and again during the 1980s, reigning for a total of 18 years. They have also won the best in show title at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show on four occasions, and have been linked to the President of the United States on several occasions, with owners including Richard Nixon and Harry S. Truman. In 2013, the cocker spaniel ranked 29th the American Kennel Club registration statistics of historical comparisons and notable trends.

The breed is the smallest of the sporting dogs recognised by the AKC, and its distinctly shaped head makes it immediately recognisable. In addition, there are some marked differences between it and its English relative. It is a happy breed with average working intelligence, although by being bred to a show standard it is no longer an ideal working dog. Members of the breed suffer from a wide variety of health ailments including problems with their hearts, eyes and ears.

Temperament

Known as the "Merry Cocker", the American Cocker Spaniel breed standard defines the ideal dog of the breed as being "equable in temperament with no suggestion of timidity." The breed ranks 20th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, a rating that indicates good "Working or Obedience Intelligence", or trainability. IQ tests run on a variety of breeds in the 1950s and 1960s showed that the American Cocker performed the best when tested on its ability to show restraint and delayed response to a trigger, a trait which was put down to the breed's bred-in ability when hunting to freeze upon finding a bird before flushing it out on command. However, they proved to be the worst breed tested when it came to manipulating objects with their paws, for instance uncovering a dish of food or pulling on a string.

With a good level of socialisation at an early age, an American Cocker can get along with people, children, other dogs and other pets. This breed seems to have a perpetually wagging tail and prefers to be around people; it is not best suited to the backyard alone. Cockers can be easily stressed by loud noises and by rough treatment or handling.

Members of the breed were originally used as hunting dogs, but increased in popularity as a show dog. It was bred more and more in conformation with the breed standard, resulting in certain attributes, such as a long coat, which no longer make it an ideal working dog.

Health

American Cocker Spaniels in UK and USA/Canada surveys had a median lifespan of about 10 to 11 years, which is on the low end of the typical range for purebred dogs, and one to two years less than other breeds of their size. The larger English Cocker Spaniel typically lives about a year longer than the American Cocker Spaniel. In a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (23%), old age (20%), cardiac (8%), and immune-mediated (8%). In a 2003 USA/Canada Health Survey with a smaller sample size, the leading causes of death were cancer, hepatic disease, and immune-mediated.

American Cockers previously high popularity resulted in the breed frequently being bred by backyard breeders or in puppy mills. This indiscriminate breeding has increased the proliferation of breed related health issues in certain bloodlines.

American Cocker Spaniels are susceptible to a variety of illnesses, particularly infections affecting their ears and, in some cases, their eyes. Although the number or percent of afflicted dogs is not known, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), glaucoma, and cataracts have been identified in some members of the breed. The American Spaniel Club recommends annual eye exams by a veterinary ophthalmologist for all dogs that are to be used for breeding. Autoimmune problems in Cockers have also been identified in an unknown number or percent of the breed, including autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Ear inflammations are common in drop-eared breeds of dog, including the American Cocker, and luxating patellas and hip dysplasia have been identified in some members of the breed.

Heart conditions such as dilated cardiomyopathy, where the heart becomes weakened and enlarged, and sick sinus syndrome, which is a type of abnormal heart beating which causes low blood pressure, have been identified in the breed. Phosphofructokinase deficiency is a condition caused by a recessive gene in the breed which prevents the metabolism of glucose into energy, causing the dog to have extremely low energy and be unable to exercise. The gene which causes this appears in around 10 percent of the population, but DNA testing can prevent two carrier dogs from breeding and thus creating puppies with this condition.


American Cockers are also prone to canine epilepsy and the related condition known as Rage Syndrome. The latter is a form of epilepsy which can cause a normally placid dog to engage in sudden and unprovoked violent attacks. Initial research shows that both conditions appear to be inheritable.

American Bulldog

American Bulldog-dog-pet-dog breeds

The American Bulldog is a breed of utility dog. There are two specific types of American Bulldog, Standard and Classic; additionally, there are also mixes of the two types.

Description

Appearance

The American bulldog is a stocky, well built, strong-looking dog, with a large head and a muscular build. Its coat is short and generally smooth. The breed is a light to moderate shedder. Colors, while historically predominantly white with patches of red, black, or brindle, have grown in recent years to include many color patterns including black, red, brown, fawn, and all shades of brindle. The color conformation is quite varied, but solid black or any degree of merle is considered a cosmetic fault, and a blue color is a disqualification by the NKC Breed Standard. Black pigmentation on the nose and eye rims is traditionally preferred, with only some pink allowed. Eye color is usually brown, but heterochromia also occurs, although this is also considered a cosmetic fault. American Bulldogs are known to drool more than other breeds of dog; this varies and is more prevalent in the Bully type, which is generally a larger, heavier dog with a shorter muzzle. Standard or Performance types are generally more athletic with longer muzzles and a more square head. It is important to note that many modern American Bulldogs are a combination of the two types usually termed "hybrid." In general, American Bulldogs weigh between 27 and 54 kg (60 to 120 lb) and are 52 to 70 cm (20 to 28 in) at the withers, but have been known to greatly exceed these dimensions, especially in the "out of standard," nonworking stock.

Temperament

American Bulldogs are typically confident, social, and active dogs that are at ease with their families. It is not uncommon for an American Bulldog to require a high level of attention due to their highly emotional personality. They bond strongly with their owners. They are capable of jumping in excess of 3 feet (0.91 m) vertical due to the dense muscle build of the breed. Young American Bulldogs may be slightly aloof with strangers, but as they mature the breed's normal confidence should assert itself. This breed tolerates children and can do very well with them, provided they are socialized early and understand their limits. The more exposure to good training practices, other dogs, and people, the more likely the success at being controlled both inside and outside of their environment. Early training and socialization both in the home and outside of the home is essential for this breed. While the goal of the breed was originally to produce a working farm utility dog that could catch and hold wild boar and cattle, kill vermin, and guard an owner's property, when properly trained, exercised and socialized, this breed can become a family pet.

Health

American Bulldogs generally live from 10 to 16 years, and tend to be strong, physically active, and often healthy. Some health problems in American bulldogs are often found within certain genetic lines, and are not common to the entire breed, while others, such as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), Ichthyosis, disorders of the kidney and thyroid, ACL tears, hip dysplasia, cherry eye, elbow dysplasia, entropion, ectropion, and bone cancer are more common to the general population of American Bulldogs. There are DNA tests available to help breeders screen breeding animals for NCL (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) and Ichthyosis. A Penn Hip (Pennsylvania Hip Improvement project) or OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) screening is recommended for all potential breeding animals. Some American Bulldogs are prone to allergies. Symptoms like a runny nose or a rash are examples of signs of allergies. Some vets recommend dog owners to give 25 mg of Benadryl per day; in most cases it helps.

American Bulldogs in popular culture

·         Spike and Tyke from the Tom and Jerry franchise.
·         The Deftones' video Bloody Cape featured a model walking an American Bulldog down the street. The American Bulldog was actually played by two separate dogs from the Norcal's American Bulldog Kennel. The names of the dogs were Big Trouble and Tory Hesta.
·         In Return to Me (2000), David Duchovny’s character’s dog, Mel, is played by an American Bulldog named Peetey.
·         In the 2001 film Kevin of the North, one of Kevin Manley's sled dogs is an American Bulldog named Snowflake.
·         Nedd ("Nasty Evil Dead Dog") in The Number 23 (2007)
·         In Tucker and Dale vs Evil (2010), Jangers, Tyler Labine's character’s dog, is played by an American Bulldog named Weezer.
·         An American Bulldog features prominently as the titular character's companion in the 2013 film Joe.
·         Since the 1990s, American Bulldogs have become more frequently used in films as family pets, replacing the previously popular Pit Bulls and Bull Terriers. For example:
·         Chance from the feature film Homeward Bound: The Incredible Journey (1993) and its sequel, Homeward Bound II: Lost in San Francisco (1996). Suregrips Rattler (Chance) was only in the first Homeward Bound movie. The first film based on The Incredible Journey featured a Bull Terrier.
·         Although the original Petey from Hal Roach's Our Gang was an American Pit Bull, in the 1994 film remake, The Little Rascals, Petey was played by an American Bulldog.
·         In Cheaper by the Dozen (2003), an American Bulldog is the family pet.

Alpine Spaniel

Alpine Spaniel-pet-dog-dog breeds

The Alpine Spaniel is an extinct breed of dog which was used in mountain rescues by the Augustinian Canons, who run hospices in the region around the Great St. Bernard Pass. The spaniel was a large dog notable for its thick curly coat. One of the most famous specimens of the Alpine Spaniel is Barry, however his preserved body has been modified on more than one occasion to fit with descriptions of the extinct breed from earlier time periods. Due to the conditions in the Alps, and a series of accidents, extinction was discussed as a possibility by authors during the 1830s, and at some point prior to 1847 the entire breed was reduced to a single example due to disease. Evidence held at the Natural History Museum in Bern show that two distinct breeds of dog were being used in the area during this time period. The breed is thought to be the predecessor to the modern St. Bernard and the Clumber Spaniel.

Description

The Alpine was a large breed of spaniel, described as reaching two feet at the withers and six feet from the nose to the tail. It had a closely set coat, curlier than that of the English Cocker Spaniel or the English Springer Spaniel. An intelligent breed, it was particularly adapted to the climate of the Swiss Alps.

Old skulls in the collection of the Natural History Museum in Bern demonstrate a diversity in head shapes. The collection proves at least two distinct variations during the same time period. The larger skulls have a greater pronounced stop with a shorter muzzle while the smaller skulls show a great deal less stop whilst having longer muzzles.

Legacy

A drawing of the Alpine Spaniel in 1848, 18 years after they were first crossed with the Newfoundland

St. Bernard

The Alpine Spaniel was one of the direct genetic progenitors to the St. Bernard. Starting in 1830, the monks and canons of the Swiss Alps began crossing the dogs with the Newfoundland, expecting that the resulting offspring would have the longer hair of the Newfoundland and this would protect the dogs better from the cold. Unfortunately ice would form on the longer hair, and seeing that the dogs were no longer effective rescue dogs, the monasteries gave them away to people in the surrounding Swiss valleys.

In 1855 a stud book was opened for these crosses, which supplied the hospice with suitable dogs and also exported the dogs overseas. Many people began breeding them indiscriminately, which resulted in their modern appearance. By 1868, the breed was commonly being referred to as the "Saint Bernard Dog" first and the Alpine Spaniel second.

Clumber Spaniel

It is thought that the Clumber Spaniel originated in 18th century France from the Basset Hound and the Alpine Spaniel.The name "Clumber" itself comes from Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire.

Alpine Mastiff

Alpine Mastiff-pet-dog-dog breeds

The Alpine Mastiff is an extinct Molosser dog breed, the progenitor of the St. Bernard, and a major contributor to the modern Mastiff (through such dogs as "Couchez"), as well as to other breeds that derive from these breeds or are closely related to them. M.B. Wynn wrote, "In 1829 a vast light brindle dog of the old Alpine mastiff breed, named L'Ami, was brought from the convent of Great St. Bernard, and exhibited in London and Liverpool as the largest dog in England." William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, is believed to have bred Alpine Mastiffs at Chatsworth House.

The names "Alpine Mastiff" and "Saint Bernard" were used interchangeably in the early 19th century, though the variety that was kept at the hospice at the Great St. Bernard Pass was significantly altered by introducing other breeds, including Newfoundland and Great Dane, and it is this composite breed that now carries the name St. Bernard.[3] Inevitably these Mountain dogs filtered through to the wider population, and the original variety dwindled in its pure form, though a rare breed, the "Cane Garouf" or "Patua", found in the part of the Alps formerly inhabited by the Alpine Mastiff, may also descend from the extinct breed.

The Alpine Mastiff was, along with the Tibetan Mastiff and Caucasian Shepherd Dog, one of the earliest breeds of dog to reach truly gigantic size. It was one of the very first true mastiffs, originating in northern Europe before 500 B.C. The largest individuals may have reached more than 1 m (39 in) tall at the shoulder and weighed 160 kg (350 lb) or more, surpassing the modern Saint Bernard and English Mastiff in size. Beginning in the 1970s, there have been some efforts to breed back the Alpine Mastiff, mainly by using breeds such as the Saint Bernard, Great Dane, Great Pyrenees, and Bernese Mountain Dog.

Alpine Dachsbracke

Alpine Dachsbracke-pet-dog-dog breeds

The Alpine Dachsbracke (ger. Alpenländische Dachsbracke) is a small breed of dog of the scent hound type originating in Austria. The Alpine Dachsbracke was bred to track wounded deer as well as boar, hare, and fox. It is highly efficient at following a trail even after it has gone cold. The Alpine Dachsbracke is very sturdy, and Austria is said to be the country of origin.

Description

Appearance

This small dog has a slight resemblance to a Dachshund, with short legs (although longer than a dachshund’s) and a long body. The coat is dense, short but smooth except for the tail and neck. The round eyes have a lively expression. Being very sturdy, the Alpine Dachsbracke is visibly robust and has a big boned structure.

Preferred colors in competition are dark deer red with or without black hairs lightly interspersed. Black with red-brown markings on the head, chest, legs, feet, and tail are also permitted, as well as a white star on the chest (according to the American Rare Breed Association). The ideal height for dogs is 37–38 cm, and the ideal height for bitches is 36–37 cm. Strong limbs and feet, with black toenails and tight toes as well as strong elastic skin are features that judges look for in competition. They also look for a trotting gait. The top coat should be very thick, the undercoat dense and both closefitting to the body.

The Alpine Dachsbracke weighs from 15 to 18 kg (33 to 40 lb) and stands from 34 to 42 cm (13 to 16 in) at the withers. It is often compared with the dachshund, as they are very similar in appearance.

Temperament

Used effectively to track wounded deer, this breed could work even in harsh terrain and high altitude. It makes a good companion, although it is primarily a hunter and therefore is kept mostly by hunters. It has a fearless, friendly and intelligent personality. Most Alpine Dachsbrackes are excellent with children and good with dogs and other pets, though they may exhibit a strong prey drive typical of many scent dogs.

Dogo Cubano

Dogo Cubano also known as the Cuban Dogge , Cuban Bloodhound and Cuban Mastiff is an extinct dog breed from Cuba. It was of the Bull...

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