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Showing posts from October, 2017

Dog behavior

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Dog behavior is the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of the domestic dog (individuals or groups) to internal and/or external stimuli. As the oldest domesticated species, with estimates ranging from 9,000–30,000 years BCE, the minds of dogs inevitably have been shaped by millennia of contact with humans. As a result of this physical and social evolution, dogs, more than any other species, have acquired the ability to understand and communicate with humans, and they are uniquely attuned to human behaviors. Behavioral scientists have uncovered a surprising set of social-cognitive abilities in the domestic dog. These abilities are not possessed by the dog's closest canine relatives nor by other highly intelligent mammals such as great apes but rather parallel some of the social-cognitive skills of human children. Traits of high sociability and lack of fear in dogs may include genetic modifications related to Williams-Beuren syndrome in humans, which cause hypers…

Dog intelligence

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Dog intelligence is the ability of the dog to perceive information and retain it as knowledge for applying to solve problems. Dogs have been shown to learn by inference. A study with Rico showed that he knew the labels of over 200 different items. He inferred the names of novel items by exclusion learning and correctly retrieved those novel items immediately and also 4 weeks after the initial exposure. Dogs have advanced memory skills. A study documented the learning and memory capabilities of a border collie, "Chaser", who had learned the names and could associate by verbal command over 1,000 words. Dogs are able to read and react appropriately to human body language such as gesturing and pointing, and to understand human voice commands. Dogs demonstrate a theory of mind by engaging in deception. An experimental study showed compelling evidence that Australian dingos can outperform domestic dogs in non-social problem-solving, indicating that domestic dogs may have lost much…

Reproduction in Domestic Dogs

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In domestic dogs, sexual maturity begins to happen around age six to twelve months for both males and females, although this can be delayed until up to two years old for some large breeds. This is the time at which female dogs will have their first estrous cycle. They will experience subsequent estrous cycles semiannually, during which the body prepares for pregnancy. At the peak of the cycle, females will come into estrus, being mentally and physically receptive to copulation. Because the ova survive and are capable of being fertilized for a week after ovulation, it is possible for a female to mate with more than one male.
Fertilization typically occurs 2–5 days after ovulation; 14–16 days after ovulation, the embryo attaches to the uterus, and after 7-8 more days the heart beat is detectable.
Dogs bear their litters roughly 58 to 68 days after fertilization, with an average of 63 days, although the length of gestation can vary. An average litter consists of about six puppies, thoug…

Dog Health

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There are many household plants that are poisonous to dogs including begonia, Poinsettia and aloe vera.
Some breeds of dogs are prone to certain genetic ailments such as elbow and hip dysplasia, blindness, deafness, pulmonic stenosis, cleft palate, and trick knees. Two serious medical conditions particularly affecting dogs are pyometra, affecting unspayed females of all types and ages, and gastric dilatation volvulus (bloat), which affects the larger breeds or deep-chested dogs. Both of these are acute conditions, and can kill rapidly. Dogs are also susceptible to parasites such as fleas, ticks, and mites, as well as hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms.
A number of common human foods and household ingestibles are toxic to dogs, including chocolate solids (theobromine poisoning), onion and garlic (thiosulphate, sulfoxide or disulfide poisoning), grapes and raisins, macadamia nuts, xylitol, as well as various plants and other potentially ingested materials. The nicotine in…

Dog anatomy

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Anatomy
Domestic dogs have been selectively bred for millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes. Modern dog breeds show more variation in size, appearance, and behavior than any other domestic animal. Dogs are predators and scavengers, and like many other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, fused wrist bones, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, and teeth for catching and tearing.
Size and weight
Dogs are highly variable in height and weight. The smallest known adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier, that stood only 6.3 cm (2.5 in) at the shoulder, 9.5 cm (3.7 in) in length along the head-and-body, and weighed only 113 grams (4.0 oz). The largest known dog was an English Mastiff which weighed 155.6 kg (343 lb) and was 250 cm (98 in) from the snout to the tail. The tallest dog is a Great Dane that stands 106.7 cm (42.0 in) at the shoulder.
Senses
The dog's senses include vision, hearing, sense of smell, sense …

Origin of the Domestic Dog

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The origin of the domestic dog is not clear. It is known that the dog was the first domesticated species. The domestic dog is a member of genus Canis (canines) that forms part of the wolf-like canids. The closest living relative of the dog is the gray wolf and there is no evidence of any other canine contributing to its genetic lineage. The dog and the extant gray wolf form two sister clades, with modern wolves not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated. The archaeological record shows the first undisputed dog remains buried beside humans 14,700 years ago, with disputed remains occurring 36,000 years ago. These dates imply that the earliest dogs arose in the time of human hunter-gatherers and not agriculturists.

Where the genetic divergence of dog and wolf took place remains controversial, with the most plausible proposals spanning Western Europe, Central Asia,and East Asia. This has been made more complicated by the most recent proposal that fits the available ev…

Taxonomy of Dogs

In 1758, the taxonomist Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae the classification of species. Canis is a Latin word meaning dog, and under this genus he listed the dog-like carnivores including domestic dogs, wolves, and jackals. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) and on the next page as a separate species he classified the wolf as Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758). In 1926, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) ruled in Opinion 91 that the domestic dog Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) be placed on its official list. In 1957, the ICZN ruled in Opinion 451 that Canis dingo (Meyer, 1793) was the name to be used for the dingo and that this be placed on its official list. These are the scientific names for the dog and dingo that appear on the Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology of the ICZN.
In 1978, a review to reduce the number species listed under genus Canis proposed that "Canis dingo is now generally regarded as…

Terminology of Dog

·The term dog typically is applied both to the species (or subspecies) as a whole, and any adult male member of the same. ·An adult female is a bitch. ·An adult male capable of reproduction is a stud. ·An adult female capable of reproduction is a brood bitch, or brood mother. ·Immature males or females (that is, animals that are incapable of reproduction) are pups or puppies. ·A group of pups from the same gestation period is a litter. ·The father of a litter is a sire. It is possible for one litter to have multiple sires. ·The mother of a litter is a dam.
·A group of any three or more adults is a pack.

Etymology of dog word

The term "domestic dog" is generally used for both domesticated and feral varieties. The English word dog comes from Middle English dogge, from Old English docga, a "powerful dog breed". The term may possibly derive from Proto-Germanic *dukkōn, represented in Old English finger-docce ("finger-muscle"). The word also shows the familiar petname diminutive -ga also seen in frogga "frog", picga "pig", stagga "stag", wicga "beetle, worm", among others. Piotr Gąsiorowski has suggested that Old English *docga is actually derived from Old English colour adjective dox.
In 14th-century England, hound (from Old English: hund) was the general word for all domestic canines, and dog referred to a subtype of hound, a group including the mastiff. It is believed this "dog" type was so common, it eventually became the prototype of the category "hound". By the 16th century, dog had become the general word, and hou…

Dog

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The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris or Canis familiaris) is a member of genus Canis (canines) that forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant carnivore. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa, with modern wolves not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct. The dog was the first domesticated species and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.

New research seems to show that the dog's high sociability may be affected by "the same genes as in humans." Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior and they are able to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canid species. Dogs vary widely in shape, size and colours. Dogs perform many roles for people, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police…

Pet travel

Pet travel is the process of traveling with or transporting pets. Pet carriers like cat carriers and dog crates confine and protect pets during travel.
Animal stress
Pets may experience stress and anxiety from unfamiliar situations and locations. Cats are especially stressed by change. Instead of travelling with their owner on vacation, pets can be boarded at kennels or kept at home with a friend or pet sitter. However, that also includes unfamiliar situations and locations. This is not an option when moving permanently.
Travel methods
Air travel
Pets may travel in the aircraft cabin, checked baggage or cargo. However, airlines set their own policies regarding the travel of pets. Pet Airways specialized in transporting pets, but failed as a business. In recent years private jet pet travel gained some momentum especially due to the discounted flight sales. In such travels pets are allowed in cabin with their owners which reduces stress and trauma.
The Humane Society of the United States …

Pet store

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A pet store or pet shop is a retail business which sells different kinds of animals to the public. A variety of animal supplies and pet accessories are also sold in pet shops. The products sold include: food, treats, toys, collars, leashes, cat litter, cages and aquariums. Some pet stores provide engraving services for pet tags, which have the owner’s contact information in case the pet gets lost.
In the USA and Canada, pet shops often offer both hygienic care (such as pet cleaning) and esthetic services (such as cat and dog grooming). Grooming is the process by which a dog or cats's physical appearance is enhanced and kept according to breed standards for competitive breed showing, for other types of competition, like creative grooming or pet tuning contests, or just to their owners taste. Some pet stores also provide tips on training and behaviour, as well as advice on pet nutrition.
There are many large pet stores located in the US and Canada, including: Petland, Pet Valu, and…

Pet passport

The Pet Travel Scheme ("PETS") is a system which allows animals to travel easily between member countries without undergoing quarantine. A Pet Passport is a document that officially records information related to a specific animal, as part of that procedure. The effect is to drastically speed up and simplify travel with and transport of animals between member countries, compared to previous procedures, if the regulations are followed.
PETS was originally introduced for the benefit of animals entering or returning to the United Kingdom from other European Union countries, since historically the UK had very strong controls to safeguard against rabies including a compulsory six-month quarantine period on imports of many animals. On 1 October 2001 several European Union countries introduced the PETS scheme, under which animals from any member country may freely travel (with the correct procedure) to any other member country on approved carriers. Over time the scheme has rolled …

Pet insurance

Pet insurance pays, partly or in total, for veterinary treatment of the insured person's ill or injured pet. Some policies will pay out when the pet dies, or if the pet is lost or stolen.
As veterinary medicine is increasingly employing expensive medical techniques and drugs, and owners have higher expectations for their pets' health care and standard of living than previously, the market for pet insurance has increased.
History
The first pet insurance policy was written in 1890 by Claes Virgin. Virgin was the founder of Länsförsäkrings Alliance, at that time he focused on horses and livestock. In 1947 the first pet insurance policy was sold in Britain. As of 2009, Britain had the second-highest level of pet insurance in the world (23%), behind only Sweden. According to the latest data available from the U.S. Department of Clinical Veterinary Science and the Pet Food Institute, only 0.7% of pets in the United States are covered by Pet Insurance. In 1982, the first pet insuranc…

Pet food

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Pet food is plant or animal material intended for consumption by pets. Typically sold in pet stores and supermarkets, it is usually specific to the type of animal, such as dog food or cat food. Most meat used for nonhuman animals is a byproduct of the human food industry, and is not regarded as "human grade".
Four companies—Procter & Gamble, Nestlé, Mars, and Colgate-Palmolive—are thought to control 80% of the world's pet-food market, which in 2007 amounted to US$ 45.12 billion for cats and dogs alone.
Industry
Pet food sales in 2016 reached an all time high of $28.23 billion in the United States. Mars is the leading company in the pet food industry, making about $17 billion annually in pet care products. Online sales of pet food are increasing and contributing to this growth. Online sales in the US increased 15 percent 2015. Worldwide, the increase in online sales of pet food is between 6 and 14 percent. In 2015, the US lead the world in pet food spending.
Formulati…

Pet first aid

First aid is typically described as "Emergency treatment administered to an injured or sick person before professional medical care is available.
Although usually referring to humans, the definition is still valid when it comes to pets. Much of the First Aid that is administered is similar, however distinct differences come into play, specifically when referring to their anatomy, and their inability to communicate with humans what is wrong.
Significant Pet First Aid theory can be learned through reliable internet sources, however it is stressed that this is to be used as a learning resource only, whereas in an emergency, a pet owner should not simply go online.
Comprehensive websites with qualified Veterinarian writers are available to discuss the symptoms and treatments of certain conditions, in addition to recommending whether First Aid treatment will be sufficient or a Veterinary visit will be necessary.
Pet First Aid Courses
Over the last decade, Pet first aid courses have be…